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32 Cards in this Set

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Involves the acquisition of new knowledge, skills, or responses form experience that result in a relatively permanent change in the state of the learner


Something that reliably produces a naturally occurring reaction in an organism

Unconditioned Stimulus

A reflexive reaction that is reliably produced by an unconditioned stimulus

Unconditioned Response

A stimulus that is initially neutral and produces no reliable response in an organism

Conditioned Stimulus

Reaction that resembles an unconditioned response but is produced by a conditioned stimulus

Conditioned Response

The phase when the unconditioned and conditioned stimuli are pushed together


When the unconditioned stimulus had acquired its ability to produce learning from an earlier procedure in which it was used as a conditioned stimulus

Second-Order Conditioning

The conditioned stimulus is presented without the unconditioned stimulus, resulting in a decline of the learned response


The recover of learned responding, post-extinction, after a rest period

Spontaneous Recovery

The conditioned response is observed even though the conditioned stimulus is slightly different from the original conditioned stimulus used in acquisition (expanding of a fear)


The capacity to distinguish between similar but distinct stimuli


Requiring the subject to do something (to operate) to elements of the environment

Instrumental Behaviors

Reinforcements from the environment

Operant Conditioning

A reward is presented, encourages behavior

Positive Reinforcement

Something unpleasant is removes, encourages behavior

Negative Reinforcement

Something unpleasant is given, discourages behavior

Positive Punishment

A reward is taken away, discourages behavior

Negative Punishment

Food, shelter, and basic needs to survive

Primary Reinforcers

Stimuli that derive their effectiveness from their association with primary reinforcers

Secondary Reingorcers

Predicts that sometimes too much external reinforcement for performing an intrinsically rewarding task can undermine future performance

The Over-Justification Effect

A particular response only occurs when the appropriate discriminative stimulus is present

Stimulus Control

A stimulus that is associated with reinforcement for a particular behavior in a particular situation

Discriminative Stimulus

Only some of the responses made are follower by reinforcement

Intermittent Reinforcement

Reinforcers are presented at fixed time periods, provided that the appropriate response is made

Fixed Interval (FI) Schedule

A behavior is reinforced based on an average time that has expired since the last reinforcement

Variable Interval (VI) Schedule

Reinforcement is delivered after a specific number of responses have been made

Fixed Ratio (FR) Schedule

The delivery of reinforcement is based on a particular average number of responses

Variable Ratio (VR) Schedule

Something is learned but it is not manifested as a behavioral change until sometime in the future

Latent Learning

Mental representation of the physical features of the environment

Cognitive Map

Someone whose behavior might serve as a guide for others


Occurs when a neutral stimulus produces a response after being paired with a stimulus that naturally produces a response

Classical Conditioning

Learning that takes place by watching the actions of others

Observational Learning