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27 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back


The process by which experience or practice results in a relatively permanent change in behavior and potential behavior

Classical (Pavlovian) conditioning

Learning to associate one event w another.

Type of associative learning that Pavlov discovered while studying digestion.

Unconditioned stimulus (US)

A stimulus that invariably causes an organism to respond in a certain way.

EX: food

Unconditioned response (UR)

A response that takes place in an organism whenever a US occurs

EX: salivation due to the food

Conditioned stimulus

The process/ thing that eventually produces the desired response in an organism when presented alone

EX bell

Conditioned response

CR- after conditioning, the response an organism produces when a CS is presented

EX salivating at sound of bell

Intermittent pairing

Paring the conditioned stimulus and the unconditioned stimulus of only a portion of the learning trials

Desensitization therapy

A conditioning technique designed to gradually reduce anxiety about a particular object or situation

HOW: placing something with a positive connection in the presence of an anxiety trigger


A biological readiness to learn certain associations because of their survival advantages

Conditioned taste aversion

Conditioned avoidance of certain foods even if there’s only one pairing of conditioned and unconditioned stimuli

(When you have a bad experience w a certain taste/ food)

Operant (instrumental) conditioning

Learning g to make or withhold a certain response because if it’s consequences

Operant behaviors

Behaviors designed to operate on the environment

Behavior used in order to gain something pleasant or avoid something unpleasant

To be Conditioned

To be used to / accustomed to a specific process/ reaction

Emitted behavior

Acts that occur intentionally by an organism

Positive Reinforcer

Increase the likelihood that a behavior will be repeated

(Adding something rewarding g to the equation)

Negative reinforcer

The likelihood of a behavior being repeated is increased by subtracting something from the equation

(Subtract something unpleasant. IE a loud noise won’t stop until you perform the desired reaction)

Law of effect


Behavior consistently rewarded- stamped in (learned behavior)

Behavior that brings discomfort- stamped out

Skinner box

Used in operant conditioning of animals

Limits available responses therefore

Increasing the likelihood that ongoing behavior will occur


Reinforcing successive approximations to a desired behavior

Taking small steps to reach an overall goal


Decreasing the likelihood that a behavior will continue due to the presence of a negative event

Any even that decreases the likelihood that a behavior will continue

Punishment cannot:

Punishment can:

Punishment can teach:

-Unteach unwanted behavior



Avoidance training

Learning a desirable behavior to prevent the occurrence of something

- like a punishment

Learned helplessness

Failure to attempt avoiding something unpleasant as a result of previous exposure to unavoidable painful stimuli


Operant conditioning used to control biological functions (heart rate, blood pressure, & body temp)


When biofeedback is used to measure brain waves


A reliable “if-then” relationship between a CS and a US

Backward conditioning

A behavior conditioning method in which the unconditioned stimulus’s presented before a neural stimulus