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90 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back

Three components of energy balance?

1. Decreased calorie intake

2. Increased physical activity

3. Behavior modification

What is "energy in"?


What is "energy out"?

Physical activity, metabolism, digestion

What is energy balance?

Energy input=energy output

What is a positive energy balance?

Energy input > energy output

What is a negative energy balance?

Energy input < energy output (weightless)

How many kcal per pound?


What is a bomb calorimeter?

Instrument used to determine the calorie content of a food

What is basal metabolism (BMR)?

The minimal amount of calories expended in a fasting state to keep resting, awake body alive in a warm, quiet environment

What is resting metabolism (RMR)?

Amount of calories the body uses when a person has not eaten in 4 hours

What are some factors that influence BMR? (8)

1. Lean body mass (greatest factor)

2. Larger body surface area

3. Male gender

4. Body temp

5. Thyroid hormone

6. Stress

7. Pregnancy

8. Caffeine and tobacco use

What is the Thermic Effect of Feeding (TEF)?

The amount of calories used for digestion of food, absorption, and metabolism

What is direct calorimetry?

The amount of heat released by a person

What is indirect calorimetry?

Measurement of respiratory gas exchanged and released

What is brown adipose tissue?

Infantshave more of, and produces large amounts of heat by metabolizingenergy-yielding nutrients without producing useful energy for the body.

Underweight BMI?

Less than 18.5

Healthy BMI?


Overweight BMI?


Obese BMI?

30 or greater

Morbidly obese

40 or greater

Which system controls metabolism and hormones?

Endocrine system

What are the two hunger hormones?

Leptin and grenlin

3 classes of medications for weightloss?

Amphetamine, Orlistat, and serotonin-altering medications

3 kinds of weights surgeries?

Adjustable band (LAP band), sleeve gastrectomy, gastric bypass

Criteria for weights surgery? (3)

1. BMI must be 40or greater

2. Obesity must be present for at least 5 years with other attempts failed

3. No history of alcoholism or major untreated psychiatric disorders (depression).

What are the 4 fat soluble vitamins?

A, E, D and K

What are the 2 water soluble vitamins?

B and C

Where are fat-soluble vitamins stored?

Liver and fatty tissues

How are water-soluble vitamins transported?

By the hepatic portal vein and distributed to the body tissues

Where are water-soluble vitamins absorbed?

Small intestines

Two classes of minerals?

Major and Trace

What is a major mineral?

Need more than 100mg per day

What is a trace mineral?

Need less than 100mg per day

Identify 3 major minerals

1. Calcium

2. Phosphorous

3. Potassium

Identify 3 trace minerals

1. Iron

2. Magnesium

3. Copper

What does bioavailability of minerals depend on?

1. Nonmineral components of food

2. Age

3. Gender

4. Genes

5. Nutritional status


Where are minerals absorbed?

Small intestines

What is a cofactor?

Substance that bonds to a protein that is necessary (generally a vitamin or mineral)

What is a universal solvent?

Liquid substance in which other substances dissolve

What percent of the human body is made up of water?


How much water do men need per day? Women?

Men= 3.7 liters

Women= 2.7 liters

What accounts for the greatest source of water output?

Urinary excretion

Three hormones associated with fluid regulation?

1. Antidiuretic hormone (ADH)

2. Angiotensin

3. Aldosterone

What role does the pituitary gland play in fluid regulation?

Regulates and monitors fluid status

What happens when there is a high fluid status?

Pituitary gland releases ADH which increases blood volume and blood pressure rises.

What happens when there is a low fluid status?

Activation of angiotensin and aldosterone which causes a retention of sodium and water, blood pressure returns to normal

How does dehydration cause kidney stones?

Urine is too rich with ions

What is hyponatremia?

Dangerously low blood sodium level

Side effects of water intoxification?

Irregular heartbeat, brain and nerves swell, headaches, confusion, seizure and coma

What is hard water?

Water contains high concentration of calcium and magnesium

What is soft water?

Water contains high concentration of sodium

What is intracellular fluid?

Water inside the cell membrane (K+ and PO4-)

What is extracellular space?

Makes up most of the fluid in the body (Na+ and Cl-)

What is osmosis?

The passage of water through a membrane from a less concentrated compartment to a more concentrated compartment

What is isotonic?

Having equal concentration of solutes

What is hypotonic?

Intracellular concentration of electrolytes is greater than extracellular (inside>outside)

What is hypertonic?

Intracellular concentration of electrolytes is relatively low compared to extracellular concentration (inside

What is depolarization?

When the inner membrane is slightly negative which disrupts the resting state

What is repolarization?

Restoration of the resting nerve cell membrane

What is pH?

A measure of relative acidity or akalinity of a solution

What is the pH of normal blood?


pH < 7= ???


pH > 7= ???


What are buffer systems?

Compound that functions to take up or release H+ ions

Which macronutrient is part of the buffering system?


How do electrolytes function in the kidney?

Sodium controls the release of acid and base in the urine to maintain pH balance

Adequate vs. average intake of sodium?

Adequate= 1,500mg

Average= 2,300-7,300mg

What does it mean to be sodium sensitive?

Sodium has a direct effect on one's blood pressure

What is oxidation?

Loss of an electron

What is reduction?

Gain of an electron

What are the two defense systems against free radicals?

Enzyme systems and antioxidant chemicals

What 3 minerals are involved in antioxidant defense?

Vitamin E, Vitamin C, and Selenium

What is the most biologically active form of Vitamin E?


Where is vitamin E stored?

Adipose tissue

What is carnitine synthesis?

Vitamin C transports fatty acids to mitochondria

What are carotenoids?

Precursors of Vitamin A

Where are carotenoids primarily found?

Dark leafy greens, yellow/orange vegetables, and some fruits

What are zoochemicals?

Compounds found in food derived from animals

What are phytochemical?

Compounds found in food derived from plants

Function of phytochemical?


What is the role of selenium?

Aides the activity of glutathione peroxidase

What are the three main parts of a bone?

1. Periosteum

2. Cortical and trabecular bone

3. Bone marrow

What are osteoblasts?

Building of new bone

What are osteoclasts?

Bone cells break down and release bone minerals to the blood

What is bone remodeling?

Degradation and resynthesis of bones

What are osteocytes?

Osteoblasts embedded in the bone matrix

What is bone mineral density?

Concentration of minerals found in bone and used as an indictor of bone health

What is Beri Beri?

Disease where glucose cannot be metabolized to release energy due to a lack of thiamin.

Two related compounds of Niacin?

Nicotinic acid and Nicotinamide

What is Congenital Hypothyroidism?

Iodide deficiency passed to an infant in utero. Baby is short and has developmental delays