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28 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Lipids Functions =
9 kcal/g
major storage form of energy
transport fat soluble vitamins
major lipid in body
glycerol molecule with 3 fatty acids attached
Fatty Acid Structures=
2-22 carbons long.
short chain (liquid)
medium chain
long chain
Saturated Fatty Acid=
no double bonds, rigid structure, solid at room temp

increases heart disease
in meat, cheese, lard, whole milk
Monounsaturated Fatty Acid=
\one double bond
decreases heart disease
Mediterranean diet - olive oil
food sources=walnuts, almonds, olives, avacados.
Linoleic Acid
18 carbon essential fatty acid
omega 6=from omega end, carbon #6 has double bond

food sources=all veggie oils
Alpha Linolenic Acid
18 carbon essential fatty acid
omega 3=from omega end, carbon#3 has double bond

food sources=soybean, canola flax seed oils
Deficiency in essential fatty acids results in:
flaky itchy skin
decreased immune function
decreased fertility
Once your body has Alpha Linolenic Acid....
it can make DHA and EPA (not essential) but found in fish and seafood
Health benefits of EPA and DHA
added to infant formula for development of brain and retinal development
-reduces heart attack

BUT...excess may cause hemorrhaging
when fats with double bonds go bad because oxygen attacks the double carbon bonds, smells and tastes bad, limits shelf life
Rancidity led to....
hydrogenation = addition of hydrogen to double carbon bond.
Solidify an oil (no more double bonds=saturated fat)
increases shelf life
Trans Fatty Acids
when hydrogens end up on opposite sides instead of same side during hydrogenation (called partial hydrogenation)
not natural, only in ruminants
Food sources of trans fatty acids=
margarine, fried foods, commercial baked products.

dairy and meat products produce natural trans fatty acids
what fat increase risk for heart disease=
saturated fatty acids
trans fatty acids
what fats decrease risk for heart disease=
monounsaturated fats
polyunsaturated fats
phosholipids functions=
part of your cell membrane, help lipid transport
emulsifier = allows oils to mix with water (LECITHIN) mayo and salad dressing
Cholesterol- only found in animal products
functions: made in liver, made into bile, can make vit D and hormones

80% of cholesterol in blood is from the liver, 20% comes from diet
Digestion of Lipids=
mouth=lingual lipase removes a fatty acid from triglycerol.
stomach=gastric lipase removes another fatty acid from triglycerol
small intestines= triggers CCK hormone to cause gallbladder to release bile-->emulsifies the lipid (then called Micelle = emulsified lipid) CCK also causes pancreatic lipase to attach to micelle and remove last fatty acid from triglycerol molecule
Absorption of lipid=
villi absorb it into your enterocytes
long chain fatty acid to get to blood=go through lymph system which is filled with water so lipid forms CHYLOMICRONS and goes to main artery for circulation
short and medium chain fatty acids can be absorbed straight into blood
body produced lipid transport
made in the liver
packaged as VLDL (very low density lipoproteins)
after phospholipids are used outside cell, triglyceride taken into the tissue all that's left in cholesterol = LDL
bad! brings cholesterol to your tissues and vessels. Liver made lipids
good! brings back cholesterol to the liver which can make useful things or get rid of it. Picks up lipids from tissue
clogged arteries from cholesterol.
high total cholesterol
high LDL
low HDL
Things that increase LDL
saturated fatty acids
trans fatty acids (decreases HDL)
Things that decrease LDL
polyunsaturated fatty acids
monounsaturated fatty acids (increases HDL)
Fat Substitutes=
sucrose and fatty acids
not absorbed, goes straight to waste=diarrhea
but remember you need fat for fat soluble vitamins
Fat Daily Values=
no more than
30% fat as energy
10% saturated fats
300mg/day cholesterol

remember cholesterol free =<2mg/serving and fat free=<0.5g/serving