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119 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
As adults age, thier sense of taste
The term productive aging refers to
development of attitides and skills that support adaptiation to the transitions of life
Growth is usually complete by the
late teens for women and early 20s for men
Protien needs continue to increase until about age 24 years because
lean body mass contintues to increase
Calcium and iron intakes may be inadequate in young women because
intake of foods high in these minerals may be restricted because of attemtps to lose weight
Decreases in lean body mass and increases in body fat that occur during middle adulthood may be slowed by
exercise and strength training
The Food Stamp Program provides
coupons toward the purchase of food for people with low income
The emergency food assistance program supplements the dietary intake of low-income housholds by
reducing government-held surplus dairy commodities
The senior Nutrtion Program provides meals for
anyone age 60 years or older
Chewing and swallowing difficulties in older adults increase the risk of
food asphyxiation
Excessive stress may be associated with developmen of
peptic ulcer
A degenerative disease that is more common in women than in men is
Alcohol abuse is associated with poor nutrional status because
alchoholic beverages displace healthfull foods from the diet
Adults may use rationalizing to
assign resonable explanations for poor eating habits
Sensitivity of taste receptors may be altered if an individual has an inadequate intake of
In older adults, weakening of muscles along the gastrointestinal tract may cause
Malnutrition and being underweight are most likely to be problems for adults ages
over 80 years
a reason that dehydartion may be a problem in older adults is that
the ability of the kidneys to concentrate urine decreases
The nutrtion screening initiative is intended to help
identify adults older than 65 who are at nutrtional risk
In adults more than 80 years old, the greatest dietary concern is
maintaining adequate nutrtional status
The child and dult care food program helps provide food for
children up to age 12, senior citizens, and certain handicapped people who participate in daycare programs
To maintain a healthy body weight, adults should
learn to respond to actual hunger cues
Older women require less dietary iron than younger women because older women have
decreased iron losses after menopause
Overall, older adults require more nutrient-dense diets than younger adults because older adults have
lower energy needs
Confusion may sometimes be caused by a deficiency of
Factors that lead to decreased fluid intake in older adults include
fear of incontinence
Arthritis may lead to decreased food intake and malnutrtion because
the ability to prepare food may be impaired
A program that may benefit homebound older adults is the
Home-Delivered Meals Program
Older adults require more dietary vitamin D than younger adults because
thier skin is less able to synthesize vitamin D
Absorption of vitamin B12 may be decreased in older adults because of decreased
producation of intrinsic factor by the stomach
In-depth nutrtion interventions are provided by
registered dietitians
Malnutrtion that is inadvertently caused by treatment of diagnostic procedures is called
iatrogenic malnutrtion
Noninvasive measurements of height, weight, circumferences, and skin fold thickness are known as
anthropometric measurements
For adults who are unable to stand, height may be estimated by measuring
knee height
If a male patient weight 140 lbs when he is admited and weights 147 lbs 2 months later, his percent weight change during his hospital stay is
A loss of >5% of body weight in one month is considered to be
severe weight loss
Rapid weight loss (> 1 lb in a day) is probably caused by loss of
A client with a BMI of 18 would be considered to be
Measurement of the circumference of the muscular area of the middle upper arm provides an estimate of the body's stores of
somatic protien
Measurements of serum albumin level are used to determine
Visceral protien status
A normal total lymphocyte count (TLC) is
greater than 1500 cells/mm3
In acute-care or long-term care settings, the most common form of dietary intake assessment is a
kcal count
A patient may be at high nutrtional risk if he or she
has a serum albumin level of 2.5 g/dL
Clear liquid diets are appropriate for patients
during the 1st 24 hours after majoy surgery
One advantage of a full liquid diet is that it
provides more protein and kcal than a clear liquid diet
Enteral feeding is preferred over parenteral nutrition whenever possible because enteral feeding
maintains gut function and intergrity
Commercial enteral formula products are preferred over home-blended formula because commercial products
have a more consistent composition and are less likely to be contaminated with bacteria
Standard formulas that contain intact nutients are called
polymeric formulas
Elemental formulas contain
partially or fully hydrolyzed nutrients
Feeding tubes should be placed into the small intestin rather than the stomach if
the patient is comatose
A PEG tube is a
percutaneous endoscopic placement of a gastrostomy
Rapid infusion of hypertonic enteral formulas may cause
osmotic diarreha
Bolus enteral feeding are appropriate only when the feeding tube administers the formula into the
To determine the nutritonal adequacy of a tube feeding
anthropometric, biochemical, and clinical indexes should be assessed weekly
To reduce the risk of aspiration, patients who are receiving enteral tube feedings should be positioned
with the head of the bed elevated 30 to 45 degrees
Infusion of nutrients into a large-diameter vein, such as the superior vena cava or subclavian vein, is known as
central parenteral nutrtion
The form of carohydarte used in parenteral netrition is
dextrose monohydate
Intravenous lipid emulsions are used as part of parenteral nutrtion to prevent fatty acid deficiency and
add kcal without increasing osmolality
In patents receiving parenteral nutrtion, high blood glucose levels may be caused by
rapid infusions of high levels of dextrose
During transitions from parenteral or enteral tube feedings to oral feedings, patients should be monitored to make sure that
total nutrtional intake is adequate
The adverse effects of malnutrtion on the skin may result in
slow wound healing
One of the most stressful physical traumas is
a burn that covers >40% of body surface area
Glycogen stores are usually depleted after an indivivual fasts for
8-12 hours
During the first few days of starvation, the brain obtains glucose that is produced from
amino acids via gluconeogenesis
After several days of starvation, the body tissues obtain more of their energy from
ketone bodies
During starvation, the body conserves energy by
decreasing metobolic rate
A major difference between starvation and stress is that metabolic rate
decreases during starvation and increases during stress
Major hallmarks of the ebb phase of stress are
hypothermia and lethargy
The ebb phase of stress generally lasts for about
36-48 hours
Patients with poor nutrtional status before surgery are at high risk for pneumonia or wound infections after surgery because
their nutrient stores may be inadequate to meet increased needs during recovery
During severe stress, such as major nurns over large areas of the body, protein needs may increase as high as
2.0 g/kg body weight
As patients age, their body composition changes, and their fluid needs during recovery
The amino acid that plays an important role in the gastrointestinal tract during stress is
During stress, giving patients extra insulin does not always decrease their high blood glucose levels because
the ratio of glucagon to insulin is increased
During stress and recovery, it is especially improtant that the patients achieve adequate intakes of
vit c, vit a, and zinc
The Harris-Benedict formula for calculating basal energy requirements is based on
height, weight, age, and sex
The activity factor used to estimate energy requirments for patients prescribed bed rest is
Primary protein-energy malnutrtion is caused by
inadequate nutrient intakes
Characteristics of kwashiorkor include
very low levels of visceral proteins
For individuals with marasmus, overly aggressive repletion of nutrients may cause
refeeding syndrome
During refeeding of a patient with protein-energy malnutrtion, it is improtant to provide adequate amounts of
phosphorus, potassium, and magnesium
Aggressive refedding is appropriate for patients with
Multiple organ dysfunction syndrome (MODS) is the progressive failure of
three or more organ systems at the same time
Patients with (MODS) benefit most from
enteral feedings
Patients who are dependent on ventilators may require nutrition support that provides high proportions of
Optimal recovery from surgery is promoted by
Progression of the diet from liquids to solid foods as quickly as is reasonable
A burn that destroys the entire epidermis, dermis and underlying subcutaneous tissue is classified as a
third-degree burn
During the first 24-48 hours after a majoy burn, the focus of nutrtion care is
replacement of fluids and electrolytes
Energy needs of burned patients are influenced by the
percentage of total body surgace area (TBSA) burned
Complementary medicine may be defined as
a non-western healing approach used at the same time as conventional medicinie
The merging of conventional therapies with established complementary and alternative medicine is known as
integrative medicine
Traditional Chinese Medicine is based on balance and resotration of
yin and yang forces
A macrobiotic diet may help support recovery of individuals with cancer when used along with conventional cancer treatment because it
is low in fat and high in fiber and plant foods
To provide a nutritional 'saftey net' patients may be encouraged to take a multivitamin/mineral supplement that contains
100% or less of the DRI's for most micronutrients
The Dietary Supplement Health and Education Act (DSHEA) of 94 considers dietary supplements to be
Dietary supplemets are refulated by the
US food and drus administration (FDA)
Before a manufacturer can distribute a product that contains a new dietary ingredient, it must provide data that demonstrate
the saftey and efficacy of the product
Foods that contain physiologically active food components are called
functional foods
For patients who are taking prescription or OTC drugs, herbal preparations
may cause dangerous herb-drug interactions
Registered dietitians may encourage patients to use specific herbal supplements
for which efficacy and safety have been scientifically studied and documented
Drug-Drug or nutrient-drug interactions are likely to occur if the nuber of medications and/or supplements used by a patient is
8 or more
Unintended effects of drugs are called
side effects
Regular use of marijuana is associated with
increased kcal intake
Patients who stop smoking cigarettes have an increased preference for
sweet foods
If a patient with arthritis develops iron deficiency anemia, he or she should be asked about use of
nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs
Nurses should ask patients about their use of OTC medicaitons because
they may cause drug-drug or nutrient-drug interactions
Most drug absorption occurs in the
small intestine
Compared with when a drug is taken on an empty stomach, if it is taken with food it will be
absorbed more slowly
Drugs used to lower serum cholesterol levels may decrease absoprtion of
fat-soluble vitamins
Older adults may be at risk for potassium depletion if they use both
certain diuretics and laxatives
If a patient is taking a drug that causes nausea, he or she may be advised to
drink liquids between rather than with meals
If a pt is taking a drug that causes dry mouth, he or she may be advised to
choose soft, moist foods
Pts who take monoamine oxidase MAO inhibitors need careful counseling to avoid all foods that contain
Foods high in tyramine include
aged cheeses and aged and cured meats
A fruit juice that may increase the bioavaliablity of certain drugs and may have serious consequences is
grapefruit juice
Except for medications that are known to cuase GI distress when taken on an empty stomach, most medications should be taken
1 hour before or 2 hours after meals
When administering medications to patients reveiving tube feedings, it is imprortant to consult the
When administering medications to tube-fed patients, crushed medications should be mixed with
Health care providers need to ask apecific questions to find out about patients use o fherbal products because
many individuals do not consider these to be drugs or supplements