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16 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Allergic Rhinitis / Hay Fever (Causes for Chronic and Acute)
Type I Hypersensitivity Reaction
Acute - Outdoor Seasonal Allergies (Pollen)
Chronic - Indoor Perinneal Allergens (Pet Dander, Mold)
Allergic Rhinitis / Hay Fever (Symptoms)
Nasal obstruction, sneezing, watery eyes, thin nasal discharge, itching eyes and nose, headache, sore throat, nasal polyps.
Allergic Rhinitis / Hay Fever (Treatment)
Identify and Remove Triggers
Medication (Antihistamines, Steroids, Leukotrine Receptor Antagonists)
Vasomotor Rhinits (Symptoms, Cause, Treatment)
Symptoms similar to Allergic Rhinitis (Congestion, runny nose, watery eyes, headache, etc.) but with no identifiable allergen.
Cause unknown.
Treated by treating symptoms
Chronic Rhinitis (Cause)
Chronic inflammation of nasal mucous membrane due to repeated infections, allergies, or vasomotor rhinitis.
Chronic Rhinitis (Symptoms)
Nasal obstruction, stuffiness/pressure, nasal discharge, frontal headaches, sneezing, vertigo.
Chronic Rhinitis (Complications)
Deposits of large amounts of connective tissue in nasal mucosa with hypertrophy, frequent polyp formation leading to eventual wasting and atrophy of mucous membranes, cartilage and bone.
Chronic Rhinitis (Treatment)
Nasal irrigation, antibiotics, surgical interventions (Young's operation).
Sleep Apnea (Pathophysiology, Contributing Factors)
Breathing disruption of 20s or more, at least 5 times per hour during sleep.
Contributing factors include obesity, large uvula, short neck, smoking, enlarged tonsils or adenoids, and is more prevalent in males.
Sleep Apnea (Symptoms)
Increased CO2 levels and decreased pH. Daytime sleepiness, inability to concentrate, irritability, heavy snoring, awakening tired.
Sleep Apnea (Collaborative Interventions)
Lifestyle changes including dietary changes, smoking and alcohol cessation, and sleep positioning changes.
Oral appliances
CPAP (Continuous Positive Airway Pressure)
Positive pressure throughout the entire respiratory cycle which helps prevent alveolar collapse and improves gas exchange.

Nasal CPAP and bilevel positive airway pressure
BiPap-higher pressure beginning of inspiration, lower pressure end expiratory
Types of CPAP
Nasal CPAP
Bilevel or BiPAP
BiPAP (Bilevel Positive Airway Pressure)
Involves both airways.
Higher pressure at the beginning of inspiration but lower at the end of expiration.
CPAP Patient Education
Assess patient views on CPAP and their adherence to treatment.
Determine accessibilty to CPAP equipment.
Consider and discuss psychosocial aspect of use.
Surgical Management of Sleep Apnea
Surgical reconstruction of the uvula, tonsillar pillars, and soft palate or portions of the tongue and mandible.
Monitor for airway obstruction and bleeding in post-op period.