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68 Cards in this Set

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Feeling of apprehension, uneasiness, uncertainty, or dread resulting from a real or perceived threat whose actual source is unknown or unrecognized

anxiety

Reaction to a specific danger, and more often the body reacts "with surges of autonomic arousal necessary for fight or flight, thoughts of immediate danger, and escape behaviors"

fear

A healthy life force that is necessary for survival.



Prompts constructive behaviors.

normal anxiety

also known as state anxiety



precipitated by an imminent loss or change that threatens an individual's sense of security



a normal and expected response to stress



crisis involves the experience of this

acute anxiety

Usually more chronic in nature, person experiences it for a long time



Differs from normal form in terms of duration, intensity, and disturbance in a person's ability to function

pathologic anxiety

A major means of managing conflict; relatively unconscious; discrete from one another; often the hallmarks of major psychiatric syndromes; are reversible; adaptive as well as pathological



ego-oriented protective behavior that can fluctuate dependent on individual nees

defense mechanisms

altruism, sublimation, humor, suppression

healthy defenses

repression, displacement, reaction formation, somatization, undoing, rationalization

intermediate defenses

passive aggression, acting-out behaviors, dissociation, devaluation, idealization, splitting, projection, denial

immature defenses

1. emotional conflicts and stressors are addressed by meeting the needs of others



2. exclusion of unpleasant or unwanted experiences, emotions, or ideas from conscious awareness

1. altruism (healthy)



2. repression (intermediate)

1. individual deals with emotional conflict or stressors by indirectly and unassertively expressing aggression toward others



2. unconscious process of substituting constructive and socially acceptable activity for strong impulses that are not acceptable in their original form

1. passive aggression (immature)



2. sublimation (healthy)

1. transfer of emotions associated with a particular person, object, or situation to another person, object, or situation that is nonthreatening



2. individual addresses emotional conflicts or stressors by actions rather than by reflections or feelings

1. displacement (intermediate)



2. acting-out behaviors (immature)

1. deal with emotional conflicts or stressors by emphasizing the amusing or ironic aspects of the conflict or stressor



2. unacceptable feelings or behaviors are kept out of awareness by developing the opposite behavior or emotion

1. humor (healthy)



2. reaction formation (intermediate)

1. disruption in the usually integrated functions of consciousness, memory, identity, or perception of the environment



2. conscious denial of a disturbing situation or feeling

1. dissociation (immature)



2. suppression (healthy)

1. transforming anxiety on an unconscious level into a physical symptom that has no organic cause



2. emotional conflicts or stressors are handled by attributing negative qualities to self or others

1. somatization (intermediate)



2. devaluation (immature)

1. compensates for an act or communication; can be viewed as cleansing oneself of an act or thought perceived as unacceptable



2. emotional conflicts or stressors are addressed by attributing exaggerated positive qualities to others

1. undoing (intermediate)



2. idealization (immature)

1. inability to integrate the positive an negative qualities of oneself or others into a cohesive image



2. justifying illogical or unreasonable ideas, actions, or feelings by developing acceptable explanations that satisfy the teller as well as the listener

1. splitting (immature)



2. rationalization (intermediate)

1. person unconsciously rejects emotionally unacceptable personal features and attributes them to other people, objects, or situations



2. escaping unpleasant realities by ignoring their existence

1. projection (immature)



2. denial (immature)

Functions of the limbic system:

- appraisal of emotional stimuli


- initiation of emotional responses


- cessation of reactivity after external stressors subside and the restoration of the nervous system to a state of homeostasis

Functions of the:



frontal cortex


hypothalamus


hippocampus


amygdala

fc - cognitive interpretations (e.g. potential threat)



hypo - activation of the stress reponse (fight or flight)



hippo - associated with memory related to fear responses



amy - fear, especially related to phobic and panic disorders

Three main mediators of anxiety in the CNS

serotonin, norepinephrine, GABA

Conceptualize anxiety as a learned response that can be unlearned

behavioral theory

anxiety disorders are a result of distortions in an individual's thinking and perceiving

cognitive theory

Refers to a number of disorders, including panic disorders, phobias, general anxiety disorders.

anxiety disorders

Sudden onset of extreme apprehension or fear, usually associated with feelings of impending doom



normal function is suspended, the perceptual field is severely limited, and misinterpretation of reality may occur

panic attack

Persistent, intense irrational fear of a specific object, activity, or situation that leads to a desire for avoidance, or actual avoidance, of the object, activity, or situation

phobia

....characterized by the experience of high levels of anxiety or fear in response to specific objects or situations



common and usually do not cause much difficulty

specific phobias

....characterized by severe anxiety or fear provoked by exposure to a social situation or performance situation, resulting in humiliation or embarrassment

social anxiety disorders (SADs) or social phobias

Intense, excessive anxiety about or fear of being in places or situations where help might not be available and escape might be either difficult or embarrassing.

agoraphobia

Chronic psychiatric disorder associated with severe distress different from other anxiety disorders in that there is pervasive cognitive dysfunction, impaired functioning, and poor health-related outcomes.

generalized anxiety disorder (GAD)

thoughts, impulses, or images that persist and recur so that they cannot be dismissed from the mind

obsessions

ritualistic behaviors that an individual feels driven to perform in an attempt to reduce anxiety

compulsions

A state of physical, emotional, and mentally exhaustion caused by long-term involvement in emotionally demanding situations.

burnout

Provide education, address cognitive distortions, and present behavioral approaches in an attempt to reduce symptoms and increase involvement with others and the environment.

cognitive behavioral therapies (CBTs)

modeling, systematic desensitization, response prevention, thought stopping

examples of relaxation training

Use to treat the somatic and psychological symptoms of anxiety disorders.



Benzodiazepines most commonly Rx.



Should be used for short periods only.


anxiolytic drugs also called antianxiety drugs

A powerful form of communication that occurs within an individual.

Intrapersonal communication

One-on-one interaction between a nurse and another person that often occurs face to face.

Interpersonal communication

Interaction that occurs within a person's spiritual domain.

Transpersonal communication.

Interaction that occurs when a small number of persons meet. This type of communication is usually goal directed and requires an understand of group dynamics.

Small-group communication

Interaction with an audience.



Type of communication

Public communication

Motivates one person to communicate with another.

referent

Means of conveying and receiving messages through visual, auditory, and tactile senses.

channels

Factors within both the sender and receiver that influence communication

interpersonal variables

The shade or interpretation of the meaning of a word influenced by the thoughts, feelings, or ideas people have about the word.

connotative meaning

Broad term that refers to all factors that influence communication.

metacommunication

Allows you to express feelings and ideas without judging or hurting others.



Includes intermittent eye contact; nonverbal communication that reflects interest, honesty, and active listening; spontaneous verbal responses with a confident voice; and culturally sensitive use of touch and space.

assertiveness

Specific responses that encourage the expression of feelings and ideas and convey acceptance and respect.

therapeutic communication

...means being attentive to what a patient is saying both verbally and nonverbally.

active listening

interactive process that promotes learning



consists of a conscious, deliberate set of actions that help individuals gain new knowledge, change attitudes, adopt new behaviors, or perform new skills

teaching

purposeful acquisition of new knowledge, attitudes, behaviors, and skills

learning

learning domain that includes all intellectual behaviors and requires thinking



intended to increase a patient's knowledge of a subject

cognitive

learning domain that deals with expression of feelings and acceptance of attitudes, opinions, or values



education that is intended to change attitudes

affective

learning domain the involves acquiring skills that require the integration of mental and muscular activity such as the ability to walk or use an eating utensil



skill teaching

psychomotor

the mental state that allows the learner to focus on and comprehend a learning activity

attentional set

force that acts on or within a person to cause the person to behave in a particular way

motivation

concept included in social learning theory that refers to a person's perceived ability to successfully complete a task

self-efficacy

the cognitive and social skills that determine the motivation and ability of individuals to gain access to, understand, and use information in ways that promote and maintain good health

health literacy

the inability to read above a fifth-grade level

functional illiteracy

...requires using a stimulus that increases the probability for a response

reinforcement

supplement verbal instruction with familiar images that make complex information more real and understandable

analogies

a process of assisting people to learn health related behaviors so that they can incorporate these behaviors into everyday life

patient education

theory of health behavior



individual perceptions of susceptibility to and severity of disease are the primary motivators for making attempts to change health behavior



for an individual to change their behavior there must be a belief that illness can be avoided and that taking action can reduce the risk

Health Belief Model

attempt to depict multidimensional nature of person's interacting with their interpersonal and physical environment as they pursue health



expands view of patient motivation to include social supports and competing priorities as factors to consider



focused on achieving optimum wellness rather than avoiding disease; considers pts previous experiences

Health Promotion Model

nursing theory



optimizing the pts ability to assume responsibility for his/her own care and that motivation is based on the anticipation of resuming this responsibility

Self-Care Deficit Theory

the protection, promotion, and optimization of health and abilities, prevention of illness and injury, alleviation of suffering through the dx and tx of human response and advocacy in the care of pts, families, communities, and populations

Nursing Practice

methods used to treat kids

pedagogy

methods used to teach adults

androgogy