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22 Cards in this Set

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what does the telencephalon become? diencephalon? mesencehpalon? met encephalon? mylencephalon?
- telencephalon: cerebral hemisphere
- diencephalon: thalmus & hypothalmus
- mesencephalon: midbrain
- metencephalon: pons
- myelencephalon: medulla
what are the two important signaling factors for neurogenesis & gliogenesis in neural tube differentiation?
- roof: BMPs

- ventral: SHH
where are microglia derived from? what do they do?
- derived from mesoderm not ectoderm

- involved in disease response
what are the 4 types of macroglia and what do they do?
- astroglia: homeostasis
- oligodendrocyte: myelin
- polydendrocyte: oligodendrocyte precursor cells
- ependymal cells: form ventricles produce CSF
what is the order of neurogenesis cells during development? what kind of signaling are they dependent on?
- neurons --> astrocytes --> oligodendrocytes

- dependent on intrinsic signaling & extrinsic growth factors
what does the radial glial cell do?
- early differentiated neurons migrate out and make the radial glial cell

- radial glial cells are progenitors for making oligodendocytes & astrocytes
what happens to the neuron as it migrates out further from the ventricular zone on the radial glial fiber?
- it becomes more differentiated and more mature
what does H&E vs nissl staining show you? what do you see with degeneration?
- H&E shows you the cytoplasm & nucleus

- Nissl shows you the rER & RNA granules

- see chromatolytic changes with degeneration
what does a Weil's stain look at?
- myelin
what does a Golgi & Cajal (silver) stain look at?
- axons/dendrites
what does silver staining look for (Nauta, Fink-Heimer)?
- degenerating cells
where are pyramidal cells important & what do they look like?
- they are important in the hippocampus

- they have basal dendrite feeding back to the somite & they have apical branches feeding back to the other dendrites
what is a dendritic spine?
- little projections off of the dendrite that is often the site of synaptic signaling
what are fibrous vs protoplasmic asrocytes?
- fibrous: simplified processes & more common in white matter

- protoplasmic: lots of processes, seen in grey matter
what is interesting about the astrocytic AP?
- it is Ca dependent
where are astrocytes located?
- inbetween the capillaries & the neurons

- take up nutrients from the capillaries that can be transported into the neurons
what is the glutamate-glutamine cycle?
- release of glutamate taken into astrocytes --> converted by glutamine synthetase to glutamine --> sent into neuron & converted to glutamate via glutaminase

- then glutamate is packaged into vesicles for next release
what is the tripartite synapse referring to?
- astrocytes might also have receptors for NTs such as glutamate

- there are pre & post & perisynpatic responses
who forms glial scars?
- astrocytes will form these to stop things from spreading, release cytokines to induce microglial response
who is responsible for phagocytosis of amyloid plaques and other things in the brain?
- microglial cells
who are microglial cells derived from?
- circulating monocytes
what is needed to induce activation of a synapse?
- astrocytes