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68 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back

What is a neurocognitive disorder?

- Significantly reduced mental abilities, relative to ones prior level of functioning

What are the Primary set of features for neurocognitive disorders?

- Changes in cognitive functioning

-Must be:

1. Compared to a persons prior functioning

2. Distinguished from normal age-related changes

What are the three types of neurocognitive disorders?

- Delirium

- Amnestic Disorder

- Dementia

What is Delirium Disorder?

- Impaired Cognition and marked change in awareness

- " A clouded state of consciousness"

What is Amnestic Disorder?

- Impaired cognition confined to memory

- Other mental process remains intact

-difficulty storing new information

What is Dementia?

- Impaired Memory plus one other impaired cognitive function such as perception, attention and language use.

What are the two sets of abilities that intelligence can be divided into?

- Crystalized Intelligence

- Fluid intelligence

What is crystalized intelligence?

- Relies on using knowledge to reason; "crystallized" from previous experience

- assessed with verbal ability test

What is Fluid intelligence?

- Executive functioning

- relies on the ability to create new strategies to solve new problems, without relying solely on information previously learned

- assessed with visual motor skills, problem solving, and perceptual speed.

- decline at age 55 and more significantly at 65

Memory Impairment can happen two ways, what are they?

- Transient (lasting a few days to maximum of one month)

- Chronic ( lasting longer than 1 month)

What is Confabulation and what disorder is it found in?

- Creating stories to fill in gaps in memory

- Amnestic disorder

What are the two causes of Amnestic Disorder?

- Substance use

- General medical conditions

What are the three brain areas involved in memory?

- Hippocampus, mammillary bodies, and fornix

Name four techniques and strategies to compensate for memory problems?

- Mnemonics - help organize and retrieve information

- Writing Down information to be remembered

- Memory Aids - Diaries, notebooks, alarms, calendars, and PDA's

- Errorless Learning Techniques

What is an errorless learning technique?

- Explicitly guiding patient through learning a new skill rather than relying on trial and error

Five characteristics of Delirium?

- Patient has great trouble concentrating and focusing attention and cannot maintain a coherent and directed stream of thought

- in early stages, the person is frequently restless, particularly at night

- Vivid nightmares are common

- mistake unfamiliar for familiar

- illusions and hallucinations are common

What happens in a 24-hour period of someone who has delirium?

- Lucid intervals and become alert and coherent

Which disorder is characterized by - swings in activity, erratic,

and rapidly shift from emotion to emotion?

- Delirium

What are the five symptoms that are unique to delirium?

- Rapid onset

- Fluctuate within 24-hour period

- Hallucinations

- gradually improve

- not alert and focused

What are five symptoms unique to dementia?

- Gradual onset

- do not fluctuate

- no hallucination

- rarely improve

- consistently alert

Two Symptoms common in both delirium and dementia?

- Memory problems

- Problems with other types of cognitive functioning

Two medical factors that can effect cognition?

- Head injuries

- prescribed and illicit substances

What is Aphasia?

- Problems in producing or comprehending language

What is Broca's Aphasia?

- Problems in producing speech

- Results of damage to the left frontal lobe

What is Wernicke's Aphasia?

- Problems in both comprehension of language and meaningful utterances

- May speak fluently but non-sensical

- Result of damage to left temporal lobe

What is synesthesia?

- the production of a sense impression relating to one sense or part of the body by stimulation of another

What is Hemi-Neglect?

- is a common and disabling condition following brain damage in which patients fail to be aware of items to one side of space

What is somatic re-mapping?

- Unused somatosensory regions are 'taken over' by neighbouring regions

What are the six cognitive domains in which deficits occur for dementia?

- Complex attention

- executive functioning

- Learning and memory

- Language

- perceptual motor

- social cognition

What are the four types of cognitive impairments in dementia?

- Aphasia - overuse of the words thing and it

- Apraxia - problems with executing motor tasks

- Agnosia - Problems recognizing friends, family, or even themselves in the mirror

- executive function problems - difficulties planning, initiating, organizing, abstracting and sequencing

What are the three stages of progression in Alzheimers?

- difficulties in concentration/memory for newly learned material and may appear absent minded and irritable

- blames others from personal failings and may have delusions of being persecuted

- memory continues to deteriorate and the person becomes increasingly disoriented and agitated

What is working memory?

- Requires keeping information activated while operating on it in a specific way

- Relies on frontal lobes which operate less effectively in older people

What five things can normal aging lead to?

- Problems in recall

- slower mental processing

- difficulty sustaining high levels of attention

- difficulties in dividing attention

- problems in working memory

What are implicit memories?

- Unconscious stored information that guides a person to behave in certain ways

- well learned tasks like driving or typing

- not affected by aging

What is explicit memories?

- Can be voluntarily brought to mind

- facts, names

- recall is more difficult that recognition for people aged 65 and older

What are Neurofibrillary tangles?

- mass created by tau proteins becoming twisted together and destroying microtubules, leaving the neuron without a distribution for nutrients

- contributes to death of neurons

What is Amyloid plaque?

- Fragments of protein that accumulate on the outside surfaces of neurons

What is Vascular dementia caused by?

- reduced or blocked blood supply to the brain

What are two ways blood vessels are involved in vascular dementia?

- plaque builds up on artery walls

- clotted blood blocks the inside of arteries and prevent blood from reaching the brain

What four diseases can cause vascular dementia?


- Huntingtons disease

- Parkinsons Disease

- Lewy Bodies

What can protect against developing Alzheimers?

- Environmental factors

- Exercise

What are the medications for mild to moderate cognitive symptoms of Alzheimers?

- Cholinsterase inhibitors

What are the medications for moderate to severe symptoms?

- Memantine

Can Cognitive disorders be present at birth?

- because such deficits reflect a reduction of a previous ability, it can not be present at birth

What is described as the primary set of symptoms?

- the changes in cognitive functioning - the mental process- constitutes the primary set of symptoms

What do undesired cognitive changes usually arise from?

- medical diseasre or injury such as:

- parkinsons

- stroke

- head injury

- huntingtons

What does crystallized intelligence rely on?

- using knowledge to reason in familiar ways

Does crystallized intelligence remain stable, or decrease with age?

- Remains stable or increases with age

How is crystallized intelligence assessed?

- measures verbal ability

what does fluid intelligence rely on?

- ability to create novel strategies to solve new problems without relying solely on familiar approaches (executive function)

what do "executive functions" include?

- abstract thinking, planning, and exterting good judgment

How is fluid intelligence assessed?

- visual-motor skills, problem solving and perceptual speed

Does fluid intelligence increase or decrease with age?

- declines

how can we explain the slowed information processing as people reach old age?

- myelin sheaths coating the axon of neurons degrade or disappear, which causes neuron signals to dissipate and brain communication is impaired

Two cognitive functions that decline with aging?

- Processing speed

- attention

What is an example of working memory?

- Holding the steps of a recipe in mind while cooking and progressing from one step to the next requires working memory

In contrast with younger adults, older adults often feel _________ when depressed?

- Anxiety, agitation and memory problems

Which symptoms appear similar to delirium?

- Psychotic symptoms

- Mood anxiety or dissociative symtpoms

Name Nine medical reasons for delirium?

1. infections

2. dehydration

3. electrolyte imbalance

4. stroke

5. brain tumor

6. pneumonia

7. heart attack

8. head trauma

9. surgery

What two brain abnormalities are associated with alzheimer?

- neurofibrillary tangles

- amyoid plaques

How do neurofibrillary tangles work?

- internal support structure includes microtubules that create tracks from the cell body to the end of the axon; nutrients are distributed within the cell via microtubules. Protein (tau) helps stabilize the structure of the tracks. WIth alzheimers, tau protiens get twisted together

People who have specific versions of what gene are more suseptible to late onset alzhiemers?

- Apo E

What is parkinsons disease categorized by?

- Slow, progressive loss of motor functions

what six medical reasons can cause dementia?

1. parkinsons

2. lewy bodies

3. HIV

4. Huntingtons

5. Head Trauma

6. medications

Parkingsons causes damage within which areas of the brain?

- dopemine releasing neurons in the substania nigra

What are Lewy Bodies?

- consist of a type of protien that n some people builds up inside neurons that produce dopamine or acetlycholine and can cause neurons to die

What does HIV Do?

- Destroys white mater in the brain

What is dementia?

- Progressive disease that kills neurons and affects cognition, emotion and motor functions