Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key


Play button


Play button




Click to flip

44 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back

Describe the 4 plexuses:





Cervical - C1 to C4

Brachial - C5 to T1

Lumbar - L1 to L4

Sacral - L5 to S4

AP movement in motor neurones

AP movement in sensory neurones

Upper motor neurone to lower motor neurone

Visceral afferent or primary afferent to second order neurone

How many spinal nerves (and there divisions)


8 cervical

12 thoracic

5 lumbar

5 sacral

1 coccygeal

Sensory axons pass into the ______ root, rootlets and horn


Motor axons pass from the _____ horn, root and rootlets


Spinal nerve is located only in the

Intervertebral foraminae

Sensory neurones have their cell bodies located in the

Dorsal root ganglion (DRG)

Sympathetic outflow is from


Where are lateral horns only located?

T1-L2 (sympathetic outflow)

Signs of Horner's syndrome

Ipsilateral ptosis (eyelid drooping)

Ipsilateral miosis (pin point pupil)

Ipsilateral reduced sweating

Where do presynaptic parasympathetic nerves leave CNS?

CN III, VII, IX and X and via sacral spinal nerves

Extrinsic back muscles

Latissmus dorsi


Levator scapulae

Rhomboids (major and minor)

Intrinsic back muscles

Erector spinae (superficial)

Transversospinalis (deep)

Muscles of abdominal wall (superficial to deep)

External oblique

Internal oblique

Transversus abdominis

Extension of the spine is a function of

Intrinsic back muscles

How many vertebrae?


7 cervical

12 thoracic

5 lumbar

5 sacral

4 coccygeal

What vertebrae do not have an intervertebral discs?

Between C1 and C2

Fused sacrum/coccyx bones

Ligaments of spinal cord and function (5)

Ligamentum flavum - connect adjacent lamina posterior to spinal cord

Anterior longitudinal ligament - attaches to anterior aspect of vertebrae, prevents over extension

Posterior longitudinal ligament - attaches to posterior aspect of vertebrae, prevention over flexion

Supraspinous ligament - between TIPS of spinous processes

Interspinous ligament - between surfaces of spinous processes

Atlanto-occipital joint is a ______ joint

Synovial joint

How many joints are between the atlas and axis? And where?

3 joints:

2 between articular facets

1 between arch of atlas and odontoid process of axis

Where does the spinal cord begin and end?

C1 to L2

Lumbar nerve dermatomes

L2, L3 and L4

Great auricular nerve dermatomes

C2 and C3

Supraclavicular nerve dermatomes

C3 and C4 (innervates shoulder tip and also diaphragm)

What nerves supply T1-T11?

What nerve supplys T12?

Intercostal nerves

Subcostal nerve

Supply to lower anterolateral wall?

Iliohypogastric (superiorly) and Ilioinguinal (posteriorly)

Why is cardiac pain sometimes felt in arm?

Visceral afferents from the heart connect at T1 and T2 (arm dermatomes)

Which cranial nerve connects to the pons?

Trigeminal (V)

Muscles supplied by trigeminal



Medial and lateral pterygoid

Tensor veli palatini
Tensor tympani

Function of chorda tympanii

Taste to anterior 2/3rds of tongue

Parasympathetic to sublingual and submandibular glands

Visceral afferent function of glossopharyngeal (IX)?

What muscle does it supply?

Visceral afferent to carotid sinus baroreceptors and carotid body chemoreceptors


How does accessory nerve attach to spinal cord?

Cervical spine anterior rootlets

Describe the 5 layers of the scalp?



Connective tissue


Loose connective tissue


Which artery courses deep to the pterion?

Middle meningeal

What connects the third and fourth ventricles

Cerebral aqueduct

Foramina of Munro connects

Lateral ventricles (right and left) with third ventricle

Which nerve is affected by uncal herniation of the brain?

Occulomotor (fixed and dilated pupil)

Function of ependymal cells

Line ventricles

Function of astrocytes

Support, maintaining BBB, homeostasis

Function of microglia

Immune monitoring

Equivalent of gyrus in cerebellum

Folium (plural folia)

Components of lentiform nucleus


Globus Pallidus

Name of end of spinal cord

Conus medullaris

In the spinal cord, the white matter is divided into

Fasiculi (anterior, posterior, lateral)