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35 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
What is Top-Down Network Design?
Analyze business and technical goals first.

Explore divisional and group structures to find out who the network serves and where they reside.

Determine what applications will run on the network and how those applications behave on a network.

Focus on Layer 7 and above first.
What is a Structured Network Design Process?
The system is designed in a top-down sequence.

A focus is placed on understanding data flow, data types, and processes that access or change the data.

A focus is placed on understanding the location and needs of user communities that access or change data and processes.

A logical model is developed before the physical model.
What are the System Development Life Cycles (SDLC)?
Analyze Requirements,
Develop the logical design,
Develop the physical design
Test, optimize, and document the design.
What is the logical design in the SDLC?
This deals with network layer addressing, naming, switching and router protocols and etc.

Also, develop network security and management strategies
What is PDIOO?
Plan, Design, Implement, Operate and Optimize. Sometimes Retire is added.
What are some typical business goals to keep in mind?
Increase revenue

Reduce operating costs

Improve communications

Shorten product development cycle

Expand into worldwide markets

Build partnerships with other companies

Offer better customer support or new customer services
What are typical business constraints?
Politics and Policies
What information should you collect before the first meeting?
Products produced/Services supplied
Financial viability
Customers, suppliers, competitors
Competitive advantage
What should your ultimate goal be when you meet with the customer?
To come away with a concise statement of the goals of the project.

Determine what would happen if the project failed.
Are there any biases? Ask the management staff.

Get a copy of the organization chart.
What are Technical Goals (8)?
What is Scalability?
Scalability refers to the ability to grow
Try to learn:
Number of sites to be added
What will be needed at each of these sites
How many users will be added
How many more servers will be added
What is MTBF and MTTR?
Mean Time Between Failure
Mean Time To Repair
What are common network performance factors?
Common performance factors include
Bandwidth utilization
Offered load
Delay (latency) and delay variation
Response time
What is the difference between bandwidth, throughput and goodput?
Bandwidth is the theoretical maximum.
Throughput is the observed amount of error free data.
Goodput is performance via the application layer (i.e. is header space excessive).
What is propagation delay?
Travel time; a good rule of thumb is 1ms delay for ever 120 miles.
What is transmission delay?
Time to put digital data onto a transmission line.
(Think of bandwidth)
What is packet switching delay?
The delay when routers and switches forward data.
What is the Queuing delay?
The queuing delay is the amount of time a packet takes to be sent from the queue, this is often associated with utilization of the device and large the queue becomes from usage.
What is jitter?
The average delay varies thus it creates bursty traffic.
Voice and video are intolerant of this.
What are types of management?
Fault management

Configuration management

Accounting management

Performance management

Security management
Characterize the existing internetwork in terms of:
Its infrastructure:
Logical structure (modularity, hierarchy, topology)
Physical structure

Addressing and naming

Wiring and media

Architectural and environmental constraints

One of the first things you should do is get a network _________.
Network Map
When analyzing the current infrastructure you should:
Characterize addresses and naming,
Are there any address oddities?
Characterize the wiring
Architectural constraints
Check the Health of the Existing Internetwork
Check availability
Which protocols are used?
What are some wireless issues that could occur (4)?
When considering protocol behavior, what is the difference between relative network utilization and absolute network utilization?
Relative Network Utilization - comparing protocol usage compared to current usage on the segment.
Absolute Network Utilization - comparing protocol usage compared to the total bandwidth.
What are some attributes to Flow (Flow control)?
direction, symmetry, routing path, routing options, number of packets, number of bytes, and addresses for each end of the flow.
What is typical hierarchical topology?
o Core layer (Enterprise WAN Backbone) – high-end routers and switches that are optimized for availability and performance.

o Distribution layer (Campus Backbone) – routers and switches that implement policies. In small and medium organizations, the core and distribution layers can be combined.

o Access Layer (LAN) – connects users via lower-end switches and wireless access points.
What are the advantages to a Hierarchical Model?
o Limits Broadcasts
o Limits communication between routers
o Save money
o Modularity
o Easier to change/upgrade
What is Switch cut-through processing?
The switch quickly looks at the destination address and determines the outgoing port, and immediately starts sending bits to the outgoing port. It will forward bad frames regardless.
What is Switch store and forward mode?
The switch receives the whole frame and checks for errors before it decides to forward or drop the frame.
What is IEEE 802.1Q?
An open-standard method for tagging frames with a VLAN ID.
When are flood frames used?
When the destination unicast address hasn't been learned yet
What is a link-state advertisement (LSA)?
It is used to communicate the router's local routing topology to all other local routers in the same OSPF area
EIGRP's metrics are:
It can use bandwidth, delay, reliability, load.
By default it just uses bandwidth and delay.
OSPF's metric on a Cisco router is: