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31 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
2 divisions of the Autonomic Nervous System
-Sympathetic Nervous System
-Parasympathetic Nervous System
2 divisions of the Efferent Nervous System
-Somatic Nervous System
-Autonomic Nervous System
2 divisions of the Peripheral Nervous System
-Afferent Nervous System
-Efferent Nervous System
2 types of cell processes
2 types of inhibiting neurotransmitters
2 types of triggering neurotransmitters
Action Potential
-rapid depolarization of the cell membrane that results in the propogation of the nerve impulse along the membrane
-takes sodium ions into the cell and puts potassium ions outside of the cell, depolarizing the surface
Afferent Nervous System
-contains neurons that carry information from receptors in the body to the Central Nervous System (to the spinal cord, then to the brain)
-sensory nerves
Afferent Neurons
-sensory neurons
-taking messages toward the CNS from the body
Autonomic Nervous System
-operates without conscious control
-deals with involuntary functions (secreting stomach acid, etc)
-involves 2-nerve chains (at least 2 nerves in a chain) - oin together in ganglion where 2nd nerve of the 2-nerve chain joins up with the 1st nerve
-take messages away from the cell body to other parts of the body or adjacent neurons
-only one per neuron, although it ends in a number of branches
Central Nervous System
consists of all neurons (specifically cell bodies) located in the brain and the spinal cord
-bring messages toward the cell body
-multiple on most neurons
Efferent Nervous System
-carries information from the brain to the spinal cord then out to the muscles to cause contractions
-motor nerves
Efferent Neurons
-motor neurons
-taking messages away from the CNS to the body
accumulation of neuron cell bodies outside the central nervous system
General Neurons/Nerves
conduct impulses from the entire body or areas of the outer body
Nerve Impulse
term that describes messages being transferred by the dendrites and axons
Nervous System
an organization of neurons in the body
-nerve cells
-the functional unit of the nervous system
-chemical agent from the neuron that is discharged with the arrival of the action potential
-diffuses across the synapse and binds to receptors on another cell's membrane
-trigger or inhibit an action potential
Parasympathetic Nervous System
-craniosacral visceral efferent (found in the cranial and sacral nerves)
-“rest and digest”
-nerves trigger decrease in heart rate and respiration; increase in GI function, increase in saliva, etc
Parts of a neuron
-cell body (contains the nucleus)
-cell processes (branchlike structures that extend away from or toward the cell body)
Peripheral Nervous System
-consists of neurons (specifically cell bodies) located between the CNS and the muscles and glands of the body
-neurons (cell bodies) located outside of the brain or spinal cord
Resting Potential
charge difference between the fluid outside and inside a cell that results in differences in the distribution of ions
Somatic Nerves
-all nerves controlling the muscular system and external sensory receptors
-external sense organs (including skin) are receptors
Somatic Nervous System
-neurons of the outer body
-go to muscles and receptors in the skins
-includes all nerves controlling the muscular system an external sensory receptors
-cause external muscles to contract (voluntary)
Special Neurons/Nerves
describes neurons that conduct stimuli from the special senses
-sense of taste
-sense of smell
-sense of sight
-sense of hearing
Sympathetic Nervous System
-thoracolumbar visceral efferent (found in the thoracic and lumbar nerves)
-“fight or flight”
-nerves trigger decrease in saliva, increase in heart rate, increase in respiration rate, dilation of pupils, shutting down of gastrointestinal system, etc...
-area of message transfer
-located between adjacent neurons where 2 neurons make contact
-between dendrites and axons of 2 different neurons
Visceral Nerves
all nerves controlling organs (ie: heart, intestines, lungs...) and glands (ie: salivary glands...)