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52 Cards in this Set

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Muscle produce movement by?

Contracting in response to nervous stimulation

Muscle contraction results from the sliding together of?

Actin and myosin filaments within the muscle cell or fiber

Each muscle cell consists of

Myofibrils

Each muscle cell consists of myofibrils, which in turn are made up of?

Still smaller units called sarcomeres

Calcium and adenosine triphosphate must be present for

A muscle cell to contract

Nervous stimulation from motor neurons causes the release of

Calcium ions from the sarcoplasmic reticulum

Calcium ions attach to inhibitory proteins on the actin filaments within the cell

Moving them aside so that cross -bridges can form between actin and myosin filaments

Using energy supplied by ATP the filaments slide to together to?

produce contraction

The skeletal muscles, which make up the muscular system, are also called

Voluntary muscles

Voluntary muscles are under

Conscious control

Skeletal muscles must work in

Pairs

The muscle that excutes a given movement is

The prime mover

The muscle that produces the opposite movement is

The antagonist

Other muscles known as

Synergists

Other muscles known as synergists may work in cooperation with the

Prime mover

Muscles can be classified according to the movement they elicit. There are?

Flexors and extensors

Flexors reduce the angle at the?

Joint

Extensors increase the?

Angle

Abductors draw a line away from?

The midline

Adductors return the limb back toward?

The body

The nervous system consists essentially of?

The brain, the spinal cord, and the nerves

The nervous system enables us to?

Think, reason, remember, and carry out other abstract activities

Nervous system makes body movements by skeletal muscles possible by supplying them with?

Nerve impulses that cause contraction

Nervous system works closely with the endocrine glands, correlating and integrating body functions such as?

Digestion and reproduction

All actions of the nervous system depend on the transmission of nerve?

Impulse over neurons, or nerve cells

All actions of the nervous system depend on the transmission of nerve impulses over neurons, or nerve cells, the functional units of?

The nervous system

The main parts of a neuron are the?

Cell, body, axon, and dendrites

Dendrites transmit the impulse?

Toward cell body

Axons transmit the impulse?

Away from the cell body

The nervous system may be divided structurally into a?

Central nervous system (CNS) and peripheral nervous system (PNS)

The PNS consists of all the nerves that transmit information to and?

From the CNS

Sensory neurons transmit nerve impulses toward the?

Central nervous system (CNS)

Afferent is

Sensory neurons

Motor neurons transmit nerve impulses away from the CNS toward the?

Effector organs such as muscles, glands, and digestive organs

Examples of perception

Seeing, hearing, tasting, smelling, and touching

Efferent

Motor neurons

The major parts of the brain are the?

Cerebrum, cerebellum, medulla oblongata

Cerebrum associated with?

Movement and sensory input

Cerebellum is responsible for?

Muscular coordination

Medulla oblongata controls many vital functions such as?

Respiration and heart rate

The spinal cord is approximately?

18 inches long and extends from the base of the skull

Foramen magnum

The hole in the base of the skull through which the spinal cord passes

The hole in the base of the skull through which the spinal cord passes

Foramen magnum

The spinal cord is approximately 18 inches long and extends from the base of the skull to?

The first or second lumbar vertebra

First and second lumbar vertebra is called?

L1 or L2

Thirty-one pairs of spinal nerves exit?

The spinal cord

Simple (spinal) reflexes are those in which nerve impulses travel through?

The spinal cord and do not reach the brain

Most reflex pathways involve impulses traveling to and from the brain in?

Ascending and descending tracts of the spinal cord

Sensory impulses enter the

Dorsal horns of the spinal cord

Motor impulses leave through the ?

Ventral horns of the spinal cord

Central nervous system consists of the?

Brain and spinal cord

Peripheral nervous system includes all of the nerves and?

Their branches