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90 Cards in this Set

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Assessment findings of a local infection include

heat, redness, pain/tenderness, swelling, possible drainage (bloody, serous, purulent), abscess (localized collection of pus), cellulitis (involving cellular and connective tissue)
Assessment findings of a systemic infection include
fever, malaise, weakness
Normal WBC count
An increase in the WBC count indicates _______
presence of disease or injury
Erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) elevations > 15-20 mm/h indicate _____
presence of inflammation
Cultures of suspected infectious sites should be obtained before
antibiotic therapy
Culture specimens must be
carefully collected and identified
Immediate, short-term, nonspecific response to the side effects of injury
Caused by pathogenic microorganisms and transmitted by direct contact, droplet spread, contaminated articles, or through carriers
communicable diseases
infection acquired in the hospital
Nosocomial infections are most commonly caused by
Staphlococcus aureus
Infections or infectious diseases is treated with
appropriate antibiotics
____ precautions are used with all patients
the primary strategy for nosocomial infection control
standard precautions
the most important way to reduce transmission of pathogens is
use of standard precautions
Standard precautions apply to _____
blood, all body fluids, secretions, and excretions, except sweat
incubation time for chickenpox
13-17 days
incubation for diphtheria
2-5 days
incubation for pertussis
5-21 days, usually 10
incubation for rubella
14-21 days
incubation for rubeola
10-20 days
incubation for scarlet fever
2-4 days
incubation for mononucleosis
4-6 weeks
incubation for mumps
14-21 days
early symptoms of chickenpox include
slight fever, malaise, and anorexia
clinical picture of this disease includes a pruritic rash that begins as a macule, then papule, and then vesicle with successive crops of all three stages present at any one time; lymphadenopathy; and elevatied temperature
how is chickenpox transmitted
direct contact, droplet, and contaminated objects
Patients with chickenpox should be isolated until
all vesicles are crusted
chickenpox is communicalbe from ____
2 days before the rash
chickenpox should be treated with ______
tylenol and topical application of calamine lotion or baking soda baths
early symptoms of diphtheria
resemble the common cold
symptoms of diphtheria include
low-grade fever
pharyngeal lymphadenitis
characteristic white/gray
pharyngeal membrane
how is diphtheria transmitted
direct contact with a carrier
contaminated articles
these precautions should be observed when caring for a pt with diphtheria
contact and droplet
how long do contact and droplet precautions need to be followed for pts with diphtheria
until two successive negative nose and throat cultures are obtained
pts with diphtheria need to be maintained on
complete bedrest
the nurse caring for the pt with diphtheria needs to watch for signs of
respiratory distress and obstruction
this needs to be provided to pts with diphtheria
humidification and suctioning as needed
severe cases of diphtheria can lead to
sepsis and death
early symptoms of pertussis include
upper respiratory infection for 1-2 weeks
symptoms of pertussis include
* severe cough with high-pitched "whooping" sound, especially at night, lasting 4-6 weeks

* vomiting
how is pertussis transmitted
direct contact
cntaminated articles
pertussis in infants is treated with
pertussis is treated with _____
bedrest and hydration
complications of pertussis include
weight loss
airway obstruction
the nurse caring for the pt with pertussis should maintain
high humidity and restful environment, suction as needed
early symptoms of rubella in children
early symptoms of rubella in adolescents
low fever and sore throat
pts with rubella demonstrate
maculopapular rash appearing first on the face and then on the rest of the body...symptoms subside the first day after the rash
how is rubella transmitted
droplet and contaminated articles
observe ____ precautions in pts with rubella
contact and droplet
children with rubella should be isolated from
potentially pregnant women
treatment of rubella include
comfort measures
rare complications of rubella include
arthritis and encephalitis
early symptoms of rubeola include
fever and malaise followed by cough and Kopliks spots on buccal mucosa
symptosm of rubeola include
erythematous maculopapular rash with the face first affeted; turns brown after 3 days when symptoms subside
how is rubeola transmitted
direct contact
isolate patients with rubeola until
the 5th day
maintain bedrest for pts with rubeola ______
during the first 3-4 days
institute _____ precautions for pts with rubeola
treat pts with rubeola with
dim lights
a humidifier for the room
keep the skin clean
maintain hydration
early symptoms for scarlet fever include
high fever with vomiting, chills, malaise, followed by enlarged tonsils coverd with exudate, strawberry tongue
strawberry tongue is seen in this disease
scarlet fever
describe the rash associated with scarlet fever
red tiny lesions that become generalized and then desquamate
rash associated with scarlet fever apears within _____
24 hours
how is scarlet fever transmitted
droplet spread or contaminated articles
institute these precautions for pts with scarlet fever
droplet precautions in scarlet fever should be maingtained for
24 hours after starting antibiotics
the nurse caring for the pt with scarlet fever should ensure
compliance with oral antibiotic therapy
the pt with scarlet fever should be maintained on bedrest during ______
the febrile phase
treatment of scarlet fever includes
analgesics for sore throat
encourage fluids
soft diet
symptoms of mononucleosis include
enlarged lymph nodes
sore throat
flulike aches
low grade temp
the highest incidence of mono occures in this age range
how is mono transmitted
direct contact with oral secretions
advise family members of pts with mono to avoid
contact with saliva (cups/silverware) for 3 months
treatment of mono includes
rest and good nutrition
strenusous exercise in the pt with mono should be avoided to ____
prevent splenic rupture
complications of mono include
spleen rupture
syptoms of tonsillitis include
fever and white exudate on tonsils
pts with a diagnosis of tonsillitis will have a positive
group A strep culture
treatment of tonsillitis includes
potential serious complications of tonsillitis include
rheumatic fever and glomerulonephritis
symptoms of mumps include
parotid gland swelling
how is mumps transmitted
direct contact with saliva
pts with mumps will be maintained on ___ precautions
how long will precautions for pts with mumps be maintained
droplet precautions until 9 days after onset of swelling
what kind of diet should be provided to the pt with mumps
soft, bland
handwashing should be done immediately on contact with
blood or bodily fluids
when should handwashing be completed
* as soon as gloves are removed

* between pt contacts

* between procedures or tasks with the same pt
clean, non-sterile gloves should be worn when
touching blood, body fluids, secretions, excretions, or contaminated articles