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411 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Mean arterial pressure
is equal to cardiac output multiplied by the total peripheral resistance
What is the tumor suppressor transcriptional factor
P 53
Functions of Glucacon
Blood Glucose
Fatty acid synthesis
Amino Acid Synthesis
Urea Synthesis
It Is opposite to Insulin
Ruffini recptors Functions?
Stretch Receptors
Constant pressure Receptor
Located in dermis of hairy skin
Pacinian Functions?
Located in dermis , subcutaneous tissue, ligaments and Joins
Messeiner Functions?
Mecano receptor
two point discrimination( each point is a seperate axon)
Located in dermal papilla of skin
Collagen formation
Synthesis of Alpha chains in rER
Hydroxylation of lysine and proline in rER
Glycosylation of alpha chains in Golgi Apparatus
Cleavage of N and C terminals by endopeptidase in Extra Cellular
myoglobin ?
Stores not transport oxygen
has only one globin
Entner Doudoroff pathway
accures in Aerobic Bacteria
leads to only one ATP, one Nad and one Fad
Lipoprotein like HDL or LDL content
cholesterol esters
NO biles salts
HDL make a reverse transport to Liver
LDL transports to tissue
Juxta glomerular cells location?
around afferent arteries of the glomerules
Defect of Homogentisic oxidase
Purines and Pyrimidines fates
Purines catabolize to Uric Acid
Pyrimidines catabolize to co2 ,NH3, and Alanine
LIpid metabolism and catabolism
β-Oxidation converts
acyl-CoA → acetyl-CoA in fatty acid

Fatty acids are converted
to acyl-CoA by acyl-CoA synthetase.
Carnitine serves as a cofactor in this reaction.

Triglycerides are converted
to fatty acids by various lipases.

Acetyl-CoA is converted
to malonyl-CoA by acetyl-CoA carboxylase.
Biotin and vitamin B5 serve as
cofactors in this reaction.

Acetyl-CoA is condensed
with acetoacetyl-CoA to form HMGCoA
by HMG-CoA synthase.
DNA Motifs
The TATA box is a
portion of the DNA promoter region.

The zinc finger is a
motif that mediates the binding of regulatory
proteins to DNA.

snRNP is involved in
mRNA splicing.

The leucine zipper is
a motif that mediates the binding of regulatory
proteins to DNA.

The helix-turn-helix is
a motif that mediates the binding of regulatory
proteins to DNA.
Vitamine K
Major Role in Extrinseque pathway
Deficiency causes PT and PTT rising with normal platelets
taste signals
Sour: Acid production of H + which closes K +

Bitter : activating IP 3 which increases intracellu-
lar Ca 2+ .

Salt: Na + influx through passive ion channels.

Glucose: activating cAMP which closes K +
Bone remodelling hormones
osteoprotegerin: secretec by Osteoblast , inhibits Osteoclast
parathyroid hormone.
BMP-2: Bone morphogenic protein
ATTENTION: Osteopontine is an extracellular protein in bone not an remodeling factor
Bacteria have only
one chromosome
Multiple drug resistance related to plasmid
Streptococcus pneumoniae
are diffenrentiated by distinct capsular polysaccarides
In general, cell wall is made of Peptido glycan
and capsule is made of polysaccarides
Action of antibiotics
last stage of cell wall synthesis: penicilling, cefalosporin
D alanil, D alanine: vancomycine
DnA synthese: metronidazole, fluoroquinilone, ciprofloxacin.
Folic acid inhibition( which antibiotic)
ribosomes inhibition mnemonics
Buy AT 30 , CCELL at 50
using broad spectrum antibiotics
interferes with indigenous Biota( normal flora)
Microcytic Hypochromic anemia is due to
chronic blood loss
Homozygote (valine to glutamic acid in hemoglobin) causes
sickle cell disease
Gram stain is based on
cell wall type (peptido glycan)
removal of the capsule to a bacteria facilitates?
chronic passive congestion of the lung is characterized by
thickening of alveolar walls and hemosiderosis
what organism grow on Sabouraud medium and show dimorphisme
all Ricketsia infections are transmitted by
Hepatitis A occurs mostly in
young people
Incubation period of Hapatitis B is
1 to 6 months
actinomyces israeli
causes cervico facial actinomycose
called Lumpy jaw
abcess subcutaneous
We see interferon production in the Body in response only to
Hyaluronidase helps Streptococci
to spread through tissue
contact hypersensitivity is usually caused by
Rememember the story of the poison in wikipedia
opsonisation concerns whata microbe
Remember, viruses are concerned by the humoral immunity
the Alum adjuvant complex serves to what
induce an immume response
prolong the antigen release to the immune cells
Reccurent Herpes Labialis occurs in
People who have the virus and developped anti body against it
what is the pathology that is most associated with gastrointestinal cancer
Villous Adenoma
appendicitis first sign
First recongnition of Antigen is by
T cells
the most potent gaz for sterilisation is
Ethylene oxide Gaz , it alkylates nucleic acid and protein
Glutaraldehyde, liquid most used in hospital, alkylates the nucleic acid and proteins
signs of syphilis stage 2
condylomata lata
mucous patches
maculo papullar rash
duodenal peptic ulcer include
Perforation with peritonitis
infectious mononucleosis is characterised by
Atypical lymphocytes
Lymphocytic leukocytosis
A positive Heteophile test
most common cause of hemetemesis in alcoholic is eosophageal varices
Presence of HBS and anti HBs means the patient is a carrier
IgM is the first antibody that appears after immunisation
IgG is the antibody that appears after second exposition to antigen
Production of bone in scar tissue occurs by metaplasia
polio is the only disease where we give vaccine when the patient catches the virus
the oral Lesion that may appear as an ulcer , a nodule or a vegetative process and is often mistaken for squamous cell carcinomaa is
First sign for patient with malignant lymphoma is
the most common alternative to penicillin allergic patients is
Hemophilia A and B is sex Linked Recessive
Phage conversion is responsible for
Production of erythrogenic toxin by Streptococcus Pyogene
Villous Adenoma is the most common cause of gastrointestival cancer
penicillin is most active in growing gram positive bacteria
Myasthenia gravis causes dysfunction of Myoneural junction
spors are not transmitted from person to person
Granulation tissue contains fiboblast for the collagen and Endothelial cells for te new vascularisation
Granulation is the normal healing process
Granuloma: is the accumulation of macrophage, epithelioid cells and giant cells
Granuloma is when the white cells can not destroy the pathogen
Staphylococcal infection in the orofacial region can manifest as
Brain abscess
Cavernous sinus thrombosis
Localized tissue Abscesses
Children are routinely vaccinated against
Bordetella pertussis
Corynebacterium Diphtheria
Clostridium Tetani

NOt Inflenza
basal cell carcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma share the following caracteristics
commonly occur in the oral cavity
are cured by early excision
ascite may occur because of the decreased protein production of the liver diminishing the oncotic pressure resulting in a leakage in the peritoneum
Cirrhosis and portal hypertension may also cause that
Right heart failure affects kidney by:
Renal Hypoxia
Venous congestion
Retention fo H2O and NACL
Decreased glomerular filtration rate
A soft tissue infection rather diffusely spread along madibule and floor of the mouth includes these pathogen
Strep Pyogen
Bone metastasis comes from
But not Tongue
HTLV is the least pathogen to be transmitted in a dental office
SLE does not present Clubbing of the nails
Mucosis Fungoid is a form of Non Hodking Lymphoma in which we find
Pautrier Abcess
which are small pockets of tumor cells withing the epidermis
If a male patient under 25 years old is cut and starts bleeding excessively the pathology is
Primary Hemostasis : Thrombocytopenia
Secondary hemostasis: Hemophilia A
Neomycin, Polymixin, Bacitracin are topical antibiotics
Bacitracin: cell wall synthesis
Polymyxin B: Cell membrane permeability
Erythromycin: narrow
Azitromycin : broad
Both are 50 S Ribosome inhibitors
Disease Gene mutation:
Fibrillin: Marfan Syndrome
VHL : Von Hippel Lindau
Brca1/Brca2: Breast Cancer
N myc/SRC: Neuroblastoma
Neuroblastoma Gene mutation is : N myc/SRC
it metastatizes to the liver
the marker is enolase

Attention: C myc gene is =Burkitt lymphoma
CEA: Adenocarcinoma
LSA: Lymphoma
AFP: Heptoma
hCG: Choriocarcinoma
Desmin: Rhabdomyosarcoma
NAISD for a long term causes Peptic ulcer
PMN and Eosinophil NEVER present antigen to T cells
Toxic shock syndrome =exotoxin release
Septic shock = endotoxin release after death of bacteria
Relative polycytemia : decrease in plasma volume leading to increase of HB concentration
= Gaibock syndrome
Diabetis insipidus nephrognic= kidney tubules are not sensitized to ADH
ADH may be NORMAL or Hign
Multiple Myeloma patients have anemia, bleed a lot because of thromboncitopenia, dont have white blood cells .
Have a lot of plasma cell=infections
osteoclastic lesions
Eosinophilic granuloma=Hystiocytosis X
more present in Mandibule than maxilla
Lead causes
stippling of RBC
peripheral neuropathy
Klebsiella is always present in lung abcess from alcolism
Emphysema = decrease elastic recoil= obstruction
Elisa: detects Antigen Antibody complexe in a specimen
Precipitation: Soluble antigen or antibody in serum
Radio immuno Assay: serum antigen or Hapten
Immunofluorescence: Antigen in histologic section
Fibroblast do not secrete TGF Beta
Infectious mononucleosis does not hav a vaccine:
It is self limiting within 3 weeks
medullo blastoma=highly malignant cerebellar tumor
of neuroectodermal origin
Glioblastoma=most common brain tumor is human
Low grade astrocytoma=chidren posterior cranial fossa cancer
Craniopharyngioma=benign cancer from Rathke pouch
Ependymoma= chidren cancer
patients mouths are the biggest source of bacteria in the office
Rickettsialpox is a new Rickettsia with mouth manifestation
Keloid is the scar tissue that is healed,
contains a lot of collagen
Periodontal disease is mainly due to collagenase contained in Bacteriodes species
Nasal staphylococcus and hospital staphylococcus have the same phage type
Tuberculosis(mycobacterium) does not produce neither Exotoxin nor endotoxin
Disseminated Tuberculosis spreads in stage 3 by way of blood stream
most common type of epithelial metaplasia is the replacement of columnar cells with stratified squamous cells
Cytopathogenic effect is related to viruses
The complement system may be activated at C1 and C3
Prolonged Streptomycin makes you deaph
the type of infection transmitted by transfusion is Non A , Non B Hepatitis.
Lymphocytic Lymphoma and Lymphocytic Leukemia are related
the same bacteria found in healthy sulcus are those that influence the periodontal disease
Hemophilia A and B are sex linked recessive
Broncho pneumonia , as opposed to lobar , is characterised by a patchy distribution
Histoplasmosis is the fungi caracterised by reticuloendothelial cells
Acute pancreatite is caracterised by elevated Lipase in serum
Behcet is the one that causes oral lesion, occular lesion and genital lesion
Displasia is a precancerous condition
Severe conbined immuno defisciency involves failure development of Stem cells (T and B)
Herpes stays latent in Sensory gonglion of Trigeminal
NOt Motor
Nystatin + Amphotericin B bind to ergosterol
Clotrimazole +Ketoconazole +Fluconazole inhibit ergosterol synthesis
Griseofulvin inhibits mitosis of Trichophyton, Epidermophyton, Microsporum in Dermophytosis
Pheochromocytoma + Neuroblastoma are the only Adrenal gland tumors
Pathologies that give Infective Endocarditis are:
Tetralogy of Fallot
Patent ductus Arteriosus
Congenital aortic stenosis
lactobacillus Casei and Streptococcus Mutans are the only aciduric Bacteria in the mouth
Strep.Mutan appears first
lactobacillus apprears second
I am the best
Skin and Tongue dont give a lot of seeding metastasis
Ovary , stomach and Large bowel give metastasis
Salmonella is not an enteric bacteria naturally found in the the stomach
the ability of a virus to grow on the complex media is not useful for identifying viruses
CD8 T cells are not infected by Hiv
HIV can infect
epidural hematoma is the middle meningeal injury that manifest right or after hours of the injury
Streptococcus Pneumonia and Cryptococcus Neoformans share the Property:
Antiphagocytic polysaccharide capsule
T Lymphocytes are the white cells against Viruses and fungi
Acute biliary obstruction produces a rise in conjugated bilirubin in serum
Urinary reflux causes......
chronic pyelo nephrite
Scurvy causes the 4 H:
Hematologic problems
Causes of Hemorrhage are:
Acute leukemia
Hepatic insufficiency
Secondary thrombocytopenia
Myxoma is the only tumor of connective tisuse origin
Tumors of mesenchymal origin are:
Papilloma is derived from the epithelium
Adenoma is glandular
APUDoma : derived from neural crest cells =tumor that secrets hormone
Basal cell carcinoma= pearly papule on a bed of telengiectasic vessels
May ulcerate
Because of its 75 percent frenquency, we suspect it first in non healing indurated ulcerative lesion of face
Cervical cancer ressembles squamous cell carcinoma is it s behavior
Pharyngitis is caused mostly by viruses
hypersensitivity to Tuberculosis presents by large necrosis
Paget disease=osteitis deformans
Albers Schonberg Disease= Osteopetrosis
Staphylococcus Protein A has these caracteristics
Elicits Hypersensitivity
Causes Platelets injury
most intracellular pathogens elicits Cellular Immunity
if tip of the tongue is injured,
the Palatogloss muscle is least succeptible of injury
Ingestion of tetracycline by pregnant mother in the second trimester affects all the primary teeth but no permanent teeth
the tooth that most likely have one or no pulp horn is the mandibular incisor
Tetralogy of Fallot:
Right ventricular hypertrophy
Dextroposed aorta
Ventricular septal defect
Pulmonic Stenosis
the cruciate ligament of the atlas attaches to the odontoid process of the axis
the generator potential of a receptor is graded according to the strengh of the stimulus
Maxillary first and second temporary molars have well developped marginal ridges
longest crown = either maxillary central or man canine
longest tooth = maxillary canine
longest cusp = maxillary canine
The structure that is located immidiately medial to the pterygoid muscle is the lingual nerve
SVE or Special visceral efferent fibers refer to the branchigenic nerves ( also 11 carries SVE fibers)
A natural Opiate synthetised by the central nervous system is the Enkephalin
Mandibular first molar would more frequently have a mesial concavity on it s crown
Speaking is a major function of the masticatory system
In intercuspal position, the cusp of Carabelli opposes the lingual portion of the central fossa of mandibular first molar
endogenous bacterial infection would be Actinomycosis
Attention: not candidiasis because candida is fungi
donc pour un ph de 7.4, si the PKa est 6.4
LOG D/DH est de 1
donc d/DH est 10 puissance 1 = 10
Two solutions : A is ph 7 and B is ph 6
Means A has 1/10 as many Hydrogen as B because B is more acidic
the sympatic stimulation affect carbohydrate because epinephrine stimulates Glycogenolysis in the liver
to have sweat , sympatic activity must stimulate the sweat glands
In maxillary first molar, Distolingual groove originates and ends in pits
the etiology factor associated with transitional cell carcinoma of the bladder is Cigarette smoking
Hodking lymphoma forms:
Mixed cellularity
Nodular sclerosis
Lymphocitic depletion
Lymphocytic Predominance( the best prognosis)
the branches of the common hepatic artery are:
Right gastric
Gastro duodenal
hepatic proper
Electrophoresis separates particles by charge but also weight
lingual convergence is important because it:
Reduces the size of the occlusal table on post teeth
influences the size of the contact areas btw teeth
allows propper arch form
allows proper embrasure formation
the structure that contains both asscending and descending collaterals of pain and thermal afferent axons( facilitating reflex activity ) are:
Dorsolateral tract of LIssauer
the principal chief sensory nucleus of trigeminal is involved in touch
the biggest hydroxyapatite crystals are in enamel
the regulating agent of phospofructukinase is
Dysplasia is a precursor of malignancy
Metaplasia =replacement of one tissue with the other
Is often reversible
the poison that causes peripheral neuropathy is
the site of production of Ketone bodies is the liver
all these help in identifying viruses:
Nature of viral nucleic acid
Morpholocy of the viral protein
Neutralization of the virus by antisera
Ability of Ether and Chloroform to inactivate virus
But not :
Ability of the virus to grow on complex media
The muscle that will be totally denervated by the injury to spinal nerve 5 is:
Romboid Major
Major nerves plexuses
Cervical plexus: C1-C4
Brachial plexus: C5-T1
Lumbar plexus: L1-L4
Sacral Plexus: L4-L5, S1-S4
Lumbar plexus branches:L1-L4
Femoral nerve
Obturator nerve
Sacral plexus L4-L5,S1-S4 branches
Sciatic nerve
Gluteal nerve
Pelvic Splanchnic
Hypoglossal nerve goes between the internal jugular and the internal carotid
Posterior branch of the brachial plexus gives
Axillary nerve
Axillary nerve innervates:
Triceps brachi long head
Teres minor
When you stand still for long time, you lose consciousness because of the :
Peripheral pooling
in the urea cycle:
one nitrogen comes from the excess nitrogen
second nitrogen comes from aspartate
and the carbon heart comes from CO2
Carbomyole phosphate synthase is the rate limiting step
Ornithine is the Amino acid required to the conversion of alpha amino mitrogen to urea
urea cycle and ketone formation occurs in the liver
ends in urea arginine
in starvation, kidney produces ketones
During muscle activity, the ATP is recycled to atp thanks to the Phosphocreatine
the atoms of purine are most directly derived from glucose PPP
phospho lipid are linked by the ester bond
in molars, the root canals usually join the pulp chamber within the cervical portion of the crown
the blood testis barrier is maintained by
Sertoli cells
Senstation from left face and teeth are interpreted by
Right parietal
the core of microvillus is made of
NOt microtubules
protein synthesis is made in the
Rough endoplasmic reticulum
Miosis occurs in
seminiferous tubules
infesctions from the angle of the mouth spreads to
submanndibular lymphnodes
Preganglionic sympathic fibers to the head have their cells bodies in the
intermediolateral horns of the thoracic spinal cord
in the posterior mediastinum , the thoracic duct usually lies
posterior to the esophagus
the middle meningeal artery enters the cranial vault through
Foramen spinosum
the dermis is classified as
dense irregular collagenous tissue
Azygos vein travel in the posterior mediastinum accompagned by
Right vagus nerve
the theory of erruption is
Fibers of the pdl PULL the tooth toward the oral cavity
the primary supinator of the radio ulnar joint is
Biceps Brachi
Oxyphil cells are found in
Oxyphil cells are found in
the parathyroid
no function
the functional cells are chief cells
oxyntic cells are found in
oxyntic cells are found in
fundic stomac
sercrete hcl , and intrinsec factor
the spleen tymus and lymph nodes are similar in that they contain
the organ that is nearer to the right kidney is the
the connective tissue found in the feotus but not the adults is
the nerve of the pterygoid canal contains
sympatic and parasympatic fibers
Brachial plexus is made of what ramis of the brachial plexus
C8 -T1
C8 -T1
the artery that run parallel to the median nerve is
Brachial artery
Brachial artery
Post ganglionic fibers of superior cervical ganglion innervate what in the eye
Dilator pupilla
Dilator pupilla
what nerve enters the gap between the superior and middle constrictor of the pharynx
Glosso pharyngien
Glosso pharyngien
the pyramids contain what fibers
upper motor neurons only
procordal plate is made of what
Ectoderm and endoderm of the roof of the yolk sac
Ectoderm and endoderm of the roof of the yolk sac
what major elements are found in the infratemporal fossa
Mandibular division of the  5 and chorda tympani of the 7
Mandibular division of the 5 and chorda tympani of the 7
whic of the glands is PURELY mucous
Attention: the submetal in mainly mucus but has some serous function
Gnarled enamel is mostly found in the
Cusps of the teeth
what is the substance that changes G actin to F actin
to turn zymogen like insulin into effective enzyme you need
to remove a segment of the polypeptide chain
GABA increases the permeability to what ion in order to hyperpolarize
Movement of calcium through the membrane of the cell involves what
CA++ - NA+ counterpart transport
the enzyme that regulates positively the synthesis of fatty acids is
Remember like citrate shttle
what is the substrate of trombin

Not protrombin
what is the polyinsaturated fatty acid found in the cell membrane
LInoleic acid
LInoleic acid
in muscle, exitation contraction couple is mediated by what
Calcium release from sarcoplasmic reticulum
a mucin is which type of protein
Glyco protein
the TCA cycle begins by what condensation
condensation of
anaerobic glycolisis gives
2 ATP and 2 Lactic acid
LIpids caracteristics are
Non polar
Carbon containing
the ability to concentrate urine is related to
the lengh of the loop of henle
all these appear in the glomerular filtrate:
Amino acid
Plasma electrolyte but not........
Steroid hormones
insulin increases the activity of what enzyme
Most extra cholesterol in the liver is turned into
Cholic acid
Cholic acid
The concentration of which of the following amino acids can be used to determine whether or not dentin has contaminated a purified enamel preparation?
1. Lysine
2. Proline
3. Hydroxyproline
4. Phosphotyrosine
5. Phosphoserine
Ans:- Hydroxyproline.
Administration of what will remove plasma oedema
Plasm volume expdender
Because they contain albumin which is going to pull the extra water from tissues
What non collagenous protein best describes dentin
Coenzyme A participate in fatty acid synthesis so it activates what
Carboxyl group
Carboxylation of Acethyl coa gives the fatty acid
the first step in the catabolism of amino acid is
Transamination of the alpha amino to keto acid
Transamination of the alpha amino to keto acid
what do collagen and elastin have in common
one third Glycine only
NOT triple helix
active transport is different from the facilitated in that
it requires energy
bicarbonate is secreted from the
Colon mucosa
Salivary glands
Stomack mucosa
But not chief cells
they only secrete pepsinogen
what is necessary for the de novo synthsis of cholesterol
plasmid vectors suitable for cloning must ,,,,,,,
have at least two genes that confer antibiotic resistance
have at least two genes that confer antibiotic resistance
after prolonged acidosis you see what in the urine
Calcitonin effect
Decrease calcium
Decrease phosphate
PtH effects
Increase calcium
Decrease Phosphate
the step of collagen that is extra cellular is
intermolecular cross linkage
intermolecular cross linkage
If isoelectric point of a molecular is greater than pH, the molecule will positively charge, and reverse is true.
it will go to the negative pole( cathode)
it will go to the negative pole( cathode)
the sweetener that is non nutritive and non cariogenic
Epinephrine elevate C Amp which elevate
Glycogen phosphorylase
aldosterone is sensitive the level of kCl
Pancreas is activated by hormone( continues to function when transplanted)
Parotid is activated by nerve( does not function when transplanted)
what is the hormone that is secrected more during absorptive state
Bulging veins in the neck result from what
congestive heart failure
how many anomeric carbons are present in fructose molecule
in the michaelis menten , what does the Y intercept represent
the inverse of V max
the inverse of V max
normal clotting time and normal platelet time with prolonged bleeding time suggests
Excessive aspirin ingestion
Dry heat is
160 degre for 2 hours
171 for one hour
Gardener syndrome = Polyps,+ skin tumors +bone tumors
autosomal dominant
like hypercholesterolemia
like neurofibromatosis
like achondroplasia
rheumatic heart disease developp
valvular insufficsiency which gives congestive heart failure
phenotipic expression in both alleles in a gene pair is called
Hereditary angiodema is a result of what
deficiency on C1 esterase inhibitor
deficiency on C1 esterase inhibitor
leionella pneumophilia is tranmitted by
aerosolization of organisms in air conditioning cooling towers
Heptitis A causes jaundice by causing
damage to the liver cells
what is the virus that can incubate for more than 2 years
uncomplicated healing of a second intention wound at three days shows what
ulceration of the epithelial surface
the most common finding from sudden death is
coronary thrombosis
the candidas that causes firmly adherent plaques is Chronic Hyperplastic
candida is treated with nystatin or clotrimazole
congestive heart failure causes
Ankle edema
Passive congestion of the liver
the fungi that causes hypae aroung vessels is
Bacterial pili allows what
Adherence to the cell wall
Adherence to the cell wall
Ricketsia has a huge tropism for
endothelial cells
Steptococcus mutan capsule or glycocalyx is very important for
Attachement to the teeth in the mouth
to escape phagocytosis like other bacteria
Attachement to the teeth in the mouth
to escape phagocytosis like other bacteria
what is the role of lactobaccili in caries
causes the progression of existing lesions
Is Aciduric
Is the second to colonize after strep mutans
Duodenal peptic ulcer has nothing to do with
PMN are mostly incriminated in destruction of tissue like in
what is the RNA virus that is oncogenic
Retro virus
HIV can develop 2 cancers
Kaposi sarcoma
Non hodking lymphoma
Rhumatoid arthritis devoloppes very specific granulation tissue in joints called
Rheumatic fever can be a sequella from
Scarlet fever
Scarlet fever
leukemia causes bleeding because of what
Panreatic carcinoma is the
poorest prognosis
poorest prognosis
asymptomatic carriers are highly contagious and a major hazard of
Typhoid Fever
Typhoid Fever
the premolar that causes the biggest problem when root canal therapy is done is
maxi first premolar
TMJ ligaments main function is
protect surrounding and supporting tissues from damages
on a mandibular temporary first molar, the cemento enamel junction is most apical in
the mesial third
maxillary first and second premolars share this caracteristic
the lingual cusp tip is offset to the mesial
in molars, the root canals usually join the pulp chamber
Apical to the centoenamel junction
in a cross section , the root of the mandibular first molar exhibits
the largest area among molars
when you are asked about the innervation of the buccal mucosa of the floor of the mouth
It means the buccal which is innervated by the mental nerve( trigeminal) not the lingual nerve
Buccual muccosa= trigeminal
Lingual mucosa= lingual nerve
circular folds (valves of Kerckring) =plicae circulares
Rugae are not located in the intestive but in the stomac
so what increases the surface area of the small intestive:
Villi-Microvilli-Brush border-Circular folds
But not Rugae
all sympathic fibers to the head come from the Superior cervical ganglion
Even sympatic fibers of the pterygoid canal
what is the hall mark of the lymphatic vessels in the upper limb
they travel with the veins
They have no valves
the naso lacrymal duct is located in
the anterior portion of the inferior nasal meatus
the anterior portion of the inferior nasal meatus
The sclerotome forms the vertebrae and the rib cartilage; the myotome forms the musculature of the back, the ribs and the limbs;
the syndetome forms the tendons and the dermatome forms the skin on the back. In addition, the somites specify the migration paths of neural crest cells and the axons of spinal nerves.
Ameloblasts will not differenciate from preameloblasts unless they
are touched by odontoblast process
Sclerotome contribute to form the vertebra with
Notochord, which is the back primitive spine
cement deposit during aging is cellular of acellular at the apex
Fenestrated capillaries are found where in the mouth
in the dental pulp
a pneumothorax limited to left lung will cause what
collapse of only left lung
what is babisky sign
what is tit related to
it is an upper motor neuron damage
the big toe goes up when the the sole is stimulated
it is an upper motor neuron damage
the big toe goes up when the the sole is stimulated
where is hydrocephalus located
in the Ventricules
motor neurons to branchial muscles are located in what nucleus
the developing heart is located where
Anterior to the prochordal plate
the cephalic vein joins what
axillary vein
axillary vein
Free fatty acids and calcium are transported in blood with
to inhibit blood clotting,
Heparin combine with what
Anti thrombin
Vitamine K is a coagulant
the caracteristic of the aorta that is most responsible for maitaining the diastolic blood pressure is

The elastic distensibility
Reduced renal blood flow can cause hypertension by means of what exclusively
Secretion of Renin
inhibition of carbonic anhydrase in the kidney will cause what
diminution of reabsorption of sodium in the proximal tubule to fabricate bicarbonate sodium
the composition of dental plaque is most similar to
Oral Bacteria
what do the platelets secrete in order to stick together
Thromboxane A2
how do peptic hormones function
receptors on the cell membrane that alter the specific activity of certain enzymes
greater petrosal nerve carries gustatory(taste)fibers to the palatal mucosa-general visceral afferent fibers and
parasympathetic fibers.
cushing syndrome causes

Hypocaliemy not hypercaliemy
Pain in the oral facial region is transmitted by what kind of nerves
Small unmyelinated
Prostacyclin is the contrary of thromboxane because it makes the blood not aggregate while thromboxane makes it aggregate
an example of synergisme is the effect of growth hormone and thyroxine of skeletal growth
Stretch reflex is an example of what
monosynaptic reflexes
has 6 stages
what has the most effect on stimulating respiration
increase in arterial PCo2
what inactivates catecholamines
Monoamine oxydase
What inactivates acethylcholine
what inactivates Cyclic AMP
what is the lingual hight of contour located on the mandibular second premolar
occlusal third
what is the papilla that is found in the vestibule
parotide papilla
compare the roots of second maxillary molar to first molar
the roots are more distally inclined
the trunk is longer
what mandibular teeth usually have one pulp horn
mandibular central ( may not have a horm at all)
First premolar
the crown of the mandibular molars inclines where
mesially and lingually
what is the groove that does not originate in the central pit on the maxillary second molar
distolingual groove
where in the mouth is the lingual embrasure smaller facially than lingually
Between the mandibular first and second premolar
what is the groove that exists on the mandibular second molar but not on the mandibular first molar
Distolingual groove
descrive the maxillary first molar cervical line
irregularly onvex toward the apex
the plane of occlusion does not affect the dental arch form
mandibular molars incline lingually and mesially
maxillary molars incline buccaly
what is the most common location of atherosclerotic induced aneurysm
abdominal aorta
polio is fecal oral transmisison
most infections are subclinical
paralysis is uncommon
3 types exist
some damaged neurones may be repaired
early HIv infection manifests as Mono nucleosis like syndrome
what is the virus that can be isolated from feces
Coxackie virus
Remember, it s an enerovirus
what is the mecanism of action of diphteria toxin
inhibits translation
inhibits translation
what is the anaerobic organism that is cultured from the mouth that forms black molonies on hemin containing culture media
porphyromonas gingivalis
porphyromonas gingivalis
bacterial capsule is made of polysaccarides
bacterial cell wall is made of N acetyl glucosamine
and N acetyl muranic acid
very thick in gram positive(contain techoic acid)
thin in gram negative contains LPS
osteogenesis imperfecta does not cause lytic lesions of the bones
lytic lesions are caused by :
Multipe Myeloma
Metastatic carcinoma
Eosinophilic granuloma
plasmid resitance is associated with:
Staph Aureus
Neisseria gonorrhe
Bordetella pertussis
Haemophilus influenza
Treptococcus pyogen
the most radiosensitive cells are
Hyperpara thyroidism causes metastatic calcification
the term to name blood in the stool is

what does red hepatization refer to
Stage of lobar pneumonia
Stage of lobar pneumonia
Rapid Dry Heat Sterilization
Can NOT be WET
12 minutes at 350 °F/177°C for Wrapped
6 minutes at 350 °F/177°C for Unwrapped
sterile= no organism
aseptic= removal of harmful pathogen
Composition of Peptidoglycan  = glycan + what?

Peptidoglycan are part of bacterial wall
The NAG-NAM backbone is ATTACKED by the enzyme lysozyme
Peptide portion: short, attached, cross-linked peptide chains containing unusual amino acids
Glycan portion: alternating units of amino sugars N-acetylglucosamine and N-acetylmuramic acid
enamel is very rich in proline and enamelin but does not have
15. Sternohyoid and sternothyroid – innervations?
s. hyoid 0 C1, C2, C3, ansa cervicalis,

S thyroid: C2, C3 (ansa cervicalis)
Key intermediates in biosynthesis of cholesterol are:

Major enzyme is HmGcoa reductase
• HMG CoA, mevaolonic acid, isopentyl pyrophosphate, and squalene

♦ NOT Cholic acids..cholic acid is what cholesterol is converted into in the liver
17. Thenar  Thenar muscles:
• Opponens pollicis, Abductor pollicis brevis, Flexor pollicis brevis
• Innervated by the median nerve (don’t get clowned by the radial nerve)
• Opponens pollicis, Abductor pollicis brevis, Flexor pollicis brevis
• Innervated by the median nerve (don’t get clowned by the radial nerve)
28. What keeps the trachea open - swallowing?
In swallowing, the larynx is elevated, respiration is inhibited, the epiglottis covers the trachea, & the eustachian tubes open – that’s why you give babies a bottle on the airplane or during other pressure changes.
The cricoarytenoid muscles are the only muscles to open the vocal cords. and the larynx
The principal buffer system in stimulated parotid saliva is carbonic acid/bicarbonate
Before swallowing can be initiated, afferent information must be received from
mucosal mehanoreceptors, indicating the consistency of soft bolus of food
Amelogenesis imperfecta can be transmitted by
- ENAM - autosomal dominant
Autosomal recessive
AMELX - X linked recessive (deletion).
genetic deletion
Mediated diffusion of substances across cell membranes differs from simple diffusion in that
mediated diffusion exhibits saturation kinetics
Because the carrier can become saturated by the presence of large solute concentrations
Facilitated diffusion differs from active transport in that
facilitated diffusion requires a concentration gradient
What characterizes both active transport & facilitated diffusion?
Competitive inhibition
The process involving nonpenetrating solutes (e.g., proteins) best describes
facilitated diffusion
where is elastin located inthe vein
Branches, division, cord – most proximal? -
robert taylor drinks cold beer -

roots trunks division cord branches
BCC is most prevalent in?
(tongue, lips?)
- upper face
Enamel Rods or Prism
? Fundamental morphologic primary unit
? Aligned perpendiculary to the DEJ (except in cervical regions of primaryteeth)
• A chamfer or long bevel is commonly used as a gingival finish line in permanent tooth preparations because the direction of the enamel rods in the region of the CEJ is such that the rods deviate from the horizontal in an apical direction
The direction of enamel rods in primary teeth is inclined in an occlusal direction in the cervical 1/3 of the crown
5–12 million per crown
Rods increase in diameter as they flare outward “Tails” (from 4–8 microns)
As you move towards pulp from outer surface,
number of rods increases.
Begin at the future cusp and spread down the cusp slope
Hunter Schreger bands??
• Alternating light and dark bands seen in enamel that begin at DEJ and end before they hit the surface
• Represent areas of enamel rods cut in x-section dispersed between areas of rods cut longitudinally
relay center between brain and elsewhere (pons, oblongata, cerebrum)
pons: relay between brain and medulla,

medulla: relay for motor neurons between brain and spinal cord.
63. clenching causes which muscles to hurt?
ANS: massetter
Patients with emphysema have a very high lung compliance
alcohol causes
esophageal cancer
chelitis is may be caused by pathogens as
Staphylo aureus
strep alpha
auriculo temporal nerve innervates:
temporal superficial region
external acoustic meatus
auricle tympanic membrane
in fermentation, the final electron acceptor is
an organic compound

Attention: not inorgnic
if you receive your thirdt tetanus vaccine,
you will developpp what antibody
poor IgM

Very high IgG
human papilloma virus is related to what cancer
Cervical cancer
What influences the lingual concavity of the maxillary anterior teeth and the groove direction of the posterior teeth
Shide shift of the mandible
Bennett Movement
the crown of the primary maxillary first molar exhibit mesial suface compared to distal surface that is
what are the capsular vaccines used for
Pneu Me
strep pneumonia
Meningitis caused by :
nisseria meningitis
Heamophilus influenza
the apex of the gothic arch relation is relative to what position
in the contractile cycle, the dissociation of myosin and actin results from what
ATP replacing ADP on the myosin heads
why atropine causes saliva to decrease
because it prevent the actino of acetylcholine on the secreting cells
At 6 years, a child exhibits what dentition
four permanent molars and the temporary dentition
Virulence of pneumococcus is related to what
Capsular polysaccharide

Not pyrogenic exotoxin
what is the branching , filamentous microorganism that is a normal inhabitant of the gingival crevice and tonsillar crypts
Actinomycess neaslundi
Actinomycess neaslundi
glucose can be made from :
fructose But not;;;;;
it is impossible to use acetyl CoA to make carbohydrates.

Remember the fatty acids convert to acetyl coa but never glucose
how do you describe the cross section of the root of the mandibular canine
ovoid but wider mesiodistally at the labial
Porphyromona gingivalis contains what in order to cause the degradation of tissues
hormones that exert their effects through the activation of second messenger are
usually water soluble peptide protein hormones
what does the Pyruvate dehydrogenase to turn pyruvate into acetylcoa
Pyruvate +NAD= Acetyl coa +co2 + NADH
In presence of Thiamine pyrophosphate
Panthotenate(coenzyme A)
LIpoic acid
choriocarcinoma is marked by a rise in plasma
Human chorionic gonadotropin
atretic follicles =
LIngual height of contour on the mandibular first premolar is on the middle third
only exeption is the second premolar where it is in the occlusal third
Rifampines that is given in Tuberculosis inhibits what
where are plasma cells located in the lymph node
In the medullary cords

Not the germinal centers that are rich in B cells still not differentiated
in case of swelling in the submandibular region , what muscle still can function normally
Medial pterygoid
pain from the gingiva of the molar inferior region is tranmitted through what
Buccal nerve, branch of the 5

not buccal nerve of the facial
widom lower teeth drain to what lymph nodes
Deep cervical
when we say renal bicarbonate production
we mean excretion,
so in asthma attack, there is hypercania, so there is
diminution of production because of the reabsorption
where the pain of maxillary central incisor ends
The subnucleus oralis is associated with the transmission of discriminative (fine) tactile sense from the orofacial region. The subnucleus interpolaris is also associated with the transmission of tactile sense, as well as dental pain, whereas the subnucleus caudalis is associated with the transmission of nociception and thermal sensations from the head.
hypo glycemia crisis is marked by;
But not Hyperventillation
Reactive Hypoglycemia, LIke in athletes is caused by which of the glut transporters

Remember the athlete story
Glut 4 which is related to muscles and adipocyte
when mandibular bone is healing from fracture, there is a
new endochondral bone fromation
the fractured condyle usually goea where
in the infratemporal fossa
If the ligual cusp of tooth number 5 is broken off, what is the movement that causes it
left mesiotrusif
globular protein are rich in what amino acids
Leucine and valine
what is the coenzyme that is required for the pyrimidine synthesis
Folic acid
what are the branches of the thyrocervical trunk
Inferior thyroid
transverse cervical artery
Suprascapular artery
what is condylomata accuminata
it s a human papilloma virus genital wart
disadvantage of ethylene oxide
very toxic to human
where do osteoclasts originate from
calcium bind to what to initiate contraction
troponin c
for heat labile instruments( sensitive to heat)
the sterilisation is done by
Ethylene oxide, always,
But if you have only that choice for a cold sterilisation then , yes
what regulates the breack down of glycogen in the liver
the phosphorilation of Phosphorilase B to phosphorilase A
a patient allergic to penicillin must receive
Erythromycin or

Not tetracycline
insulin like growth factor is secreted by
by the liver induced by the increase in the Growth Hormone in the blood
what is the organ that does not present oedema

Remember: brain , lung ... present oedema
what is the major effect of sickle cell anemia
Decreased solubility of deoxy form of hemoglobin
para neoplastic syndrome is when a cancer secretes hormones.
So what bronchogenic cancer that is mostly associated with that
Small cell carcinoma(ACTH and ADH)
causing cushing syndrome and SIADH syndrome

Remark, squamous cell causes PTH release
active transport involves what kind of protein
what does provide energy for the transport of Glucose in the intestine

Remember it s secondary active transport
Na + gradient across the membrane
Pseudomonas aeruginosa effect through it s exotoxin A
Inhibit protein synthesis
like diphteria

But tuberculosis inhibits transcription
where tonofibrils and desmosomes well developped
in keratinocytes
dentin forms most rapidly in the
floor and roof of the pulp chamber
the kidney dialysis machine is an example of
learn these:
taste and smell receptors are replaced regularly
there are primary classes of taste and odor
receptors are located on the cilia or microvillli
Molecules must be dissolved in saliva

Attention: receptors do not initiate action potention
protrusive movements are those that break the incisive boarder of inferior teeth
iodine deficiency will cause the increase of

but decreases the tyroxine and the TSH stays the same
the hyper PTH causes first in the condyles the disparition of what
proliferative zone
as this nerve innervates the middle ear, it is the one that tarnsmitts the ringing ear sensation
glosso pharagien
leukemia causes a severe anemia normocytic and normochromic called
Myelophthisic anemia
inferior molars drain where
deep cervical nodes
hypertension causes what
renal failure,
ischemic brain attacks
cardiac failure
left ventricular hyptrophy
insulin may enhance bone resorption
all clotting factors are made in liver exept factor 8
Grade I: Slightly more than normal (<0.2mm horizontal movement)
Grade II: Moderately more than normal (1-2mm horizontal movement)
Grade III: Severe mobility (>2mm horizontal or any vertical movement)
hepatitis C causes
But never cold intolerance
For the last time
Fluorosis gives Brownish color in teeth and motteling
tetracycline gives dark staining
at 9 years old,
the child has
12 primary teeth
and 12 permanent teeth
4 centrals
4 laterals
4 molars
hemophilia is caracterised by
Increased PTT
Normal PT
Normal Bleeding time
INR does not go down
Christmas disease is nothing but Hemophilia B
so it is x linked recessive and it s
factor 9
rank the 5 cusps of the mand 1st molar in size from largest to smallest
mesiofacial, mesiolingual, distolingual, distofacial and distal
NOTE for height tallest to shortest it goes
mesiolingual, distolingual, distofacial, mesiofacial, distal
the biologically active conformation of trimeric G proteins requires
the alpha subunit to bind GTP
active transport in the cell involves what kind of transporter
A protein

NOt a lipoprotein
Atherosclerosis causes hypertrophy of the
Tunica intima

not the tunica media
the cells that will form the vertebrae have their origin in where
in two pairs of somites
that will form the sclerotome
the most common variation in the mandibular first premolar is
the pterygoid plexus is usually formed by veins that are tributaries of the
Maxillary vein
Streptocycin inhibits what in prokaryotes
the initiation of protein syntesis( the translation)

Like the Diphteria toxin
non polar molecule does not dissolve well in water
cholesterol is non polar
what is the boundary between the small and large intestine
ileocecal valve
ileocecal valve
what nerve innervates the latissimus dorsi
Thoracodorsal nerve
thoracic spanchnic nerves to the celiac ganglion consists of what fibers
Preganlionic visceral efferents
where the parietal and visceral pericardia are continuous
at the veins and arteries entering and leaving the heart
the demarcation between the free gingiva and attached gingiva is between
the bottom of the gingival sulcus and the free gingival groove
what is the most antigenic:
nucleic acids
heomophilia is caracterised by
prothrombin time normal + INR normal
partial tromboplastin time prolonged
infective endocarditis might can come in these cases
patent ductus arteriosus
tetralogy of fallot
congenital aortic stenosis
Ventricular septal defect
what occurs in the mitochondria
ketone formation
fatty acid break down(attention not lipid breack down wich is made in the adipocytes to glycerol and fatty acids)
tca cycle
aspartic acid and oxaloacetic acid are
what is the coenzyme that helps in mitochondrial respiration
thyamine pyrophosphate helps trun the pyruvate into acetylcoa
fluid moves from extracellular space to cappilaries by

Attention: for the lymphatic,: ti moves by osmoes
the portal vein passes where
anterior to the epiploic foramen in the free edge of the lesser omentum
content of the pterygoid canal
greater petrosal
deep petrosal
greater petrosal
deep petrosal
neuroglia= all the cells that support the neurons=
all of the neuroglia are ectodermal

exept the microglia that is mesodermal
superior mediatinum content
phrenic+vagus+thoracic duct
left reccurent never the right
Brachiocephalic trunck+aortic arch+thymus
trachea+lymph nodes+eosophagus
brain cancer in order of frequency
Schwannoma: pathognomonic for fibromtosis type 2
related to facial nerve
what is the genera of bacteria that is used to attest the sterilisation of the autoclaves
Bacillus, stearothermo phyllus
BCG is what
live attenuated tuberculosis vaccine
what are the two bacteria that are acid fast
what is the main caracteristic of flagella of bacteria
contain only protein

eukaryotes flagella contain the pattern 9+2 not bacteria
hepatocellular cancer marker: ALpha feto protein
ovarian cancer: Ca 125
Pancreatic cancer: Ca 19-9
Prostate cancer: PSA
what are the bacteriostatic antibiotic
all the antibiotics that cause protein synthesis inhibition:
buy AT 30 CELL at 50
what antibiotics are bacteriocidal:
all the membrane antibiotics
nucleic antibiotics
Cefixime is a
Crohn disease is related to
ileum and colon mostly
jewish ancestry
infectious monosucleosis affects the liver and causes splenomegaly but does not affect the
renal function
all Macrolides end in Thromycin

50 S
bunya virus gives two subfamilies?
Hanta virus
california encephalitis
rabies, from the rhabdovirus family causes
black bodies