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19 Cards in this Set

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Opera enjoyed a golden age in the first half of the nineteenth century.
New opera houses appeared throughout Europe and the New World. Most operas were run for profit by an impresario, usually supported by the government or private sources. Performances of excerpts helped to popularize opera. Opera stories appealed to middle class. Repertory in 1850
Gioachino Rossini (1792-1868)
primarily known for his operas. Tancredi and L'Italiana in Algeria (The Italian Woman in Algiers), both from 1813. In 1815, he became musical director of the Teatro San Carlo in Naples. Rossini moved to Paris and became director of the Théatre Italien. Guillaume Tell (William Tell, 1829) is his last major opera. During the last forty years of his life, he wrote no more operas. Blended opera seria and buffa
Bel Canto
Rossini helped establish, Literally "beautifully singing," the term refers to lyrical lines, effortless vocal technique, and florid delivery. Melody most important.
Rossini's operatic style
tunefulness with snappy rhythms and clear phrases, sparse orchestration, simple harmonic schemes by third related keys. Rossini crescendo: single phrase repeated getting louder.
Rossini's scene structure
Instrumental introduction, Recitative accompanied by orchestra, Cantabile, the slow and lyrical section of the aria, In some, an interlude called tempo di mezzo (middle movement) interrupts and changes the mood, Cabaletta, the final and more active part of the aria, is usually repeated in whole or in part with embellishments. The finale brings together many characters.
Guillaume Tell
500 performances in Paris during Rossini's lifetime. includes choruses, ensembles, dances, processions, and atmospheric instrumental interludes in the manner of French grand opera.
Rossini's overtures
His overtures have found an independent life in the concert hall. Most consist of a slow introduction and a fast sonata form without a development section. The overture to Guillaume Tell, his most famous overture, has four sections: A slow pastoral introduction, A musical depiction of a storm, Another pastoral featuring a Swiss cowherd's call and A galloping allegro
Vincenzo Bellini (1801-1835)
Came into prominence after Rossini retired, built action in arias, 10 operas: La Sonnambula (The Sleepwalker, 1831), Norma (1831) and I Puritani (The Puritans, 1835). His style is characterized by long, sweeping melodies
Gaetano Donizetti (1797-1848)
composed over seventy operas, about one hundred songs, several symphonies, and a number of other vocal works (Lucia di lammermoor (1835), La Filled u regiment (The Daughter of the Regiment, 1840), Don Pasquale (1843)) averted cadences, continuity (like in mad scene from Lucia)
French Opera
Napoleon allowed only three theaters to present opera: The Opéra, which primarily showed tragedies, was the most prestigious. The Opéra-Comique gave operas with spoken dialogue. The Théatre Italien presented Italian operas. A new building for the Opéra theater was built in 1821 during the Restoration. After the "July Revolution" of 1830, the government continued to subsidize opera.
Grand opera
appealed to the middle class. Spectacle was as important as music, Spectacle was as important as music. Leaders were Scribe and Meyerbeer (1791-1864) (Robert le diable, Les Huguenots). Meyerbeer was German/Jewish
Les Huguenots
typifies grand opera. Five acts, Large cast, Dramatic scenery and lighting effects, Tragic story set in sixteenth-century France , Combination of entertaining spectacle and glorious singing, as exemplified by the closing scene of Act II
Other grand operas
Guillaume Tell (1829) by Rossini, La Juive (The Jewess, 1835) by Jacques Halévy, Don Carlos (1867) by Verdi, Rienzi (1842) by Wagner
Les Troyens (1856-58) by Berlioz
has elements of grand opera and the traditions of Lully. Berlioz created the libretto from Virgil's Aeneid. ballets, processions, and other musical numbers
Opéra comique
Opéra comique used spoken dialogue instead of recitative. It was less pretentious and required fewer singers. The plots presented comedy or semiserious drama. Romantic or comedy.
Ballet had been popular in France since the seventeenth century. Marie Taglioni introduced a new style called Romantic ballet. Composers for Romantic ballet fit the music to the choreography.
German opera
The interaction between music and literature was strong in German-speaking regions. Singspiel integrated romantic elements from French opera with the genre's national features.
Der Freischütz (The Rifleman) by Carl Maria von Weber (1786-1826)
established German Romantic opera. Ordinary folks center stage, The plots are drawn from medieval history, legends, or fairy tales. Mortal characters represent superhuman forces, both good and evil. simple, folklike melodies, giving it a distinctly German quality. The chromatic harmonies and orchestral color are also distinctive.
Wolf's Glen" scene
melodrama, a genre of musical theater that combines spoken dialogue with background music. offstage chorus support the supernatural elements of the plot.