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72 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
what is self understanding? How do adolescents self understanding differ from that of children? *Does it include moral qualities
Self understanding is the individuals cognitive representation of the self; substance and content of self conception.
adolescents are more likely to use abstract thinking and idealistic terms to describe themselves, the also note contextual or situational variations, they compare themselves to others, and to be self conscious
what are the two basic aspects of self evaluation
self esteem- the global evaluational dimension of the self; self worth or self image

self concept- domain specific evaluation (depends on specific actions or causes)
what are the eight domains of harters self perception profile for adolescents? which domains are specific to the adolescent? which domain seems to be most important for overall self esteem?
scholastic, competence, athletic competence, social acceptance, physical appearance, behavioral conduct, close friendship, romantic appeal, and job competence

3 skill domains not present in the measure she developed for children; job competence, romantic appeal, and close friendship

appearance is the most important
why should harters measure be supplemented with other methods?
by using a variety and obtaining info from various sources, investigators are likely to construct a more accurate picture of the adolescents self esteem than they could get by relying on only one assessment method.
our self evaluation is not always accurate. illustrate how it can be inaccurate or distorted
high self esteem may refer to accurate, justified perceptions of ones worth as a personal and ones successes and accomplishments, but it can be indication of arrogance, grandiose, unwarranted sense of superiority. low self esteem may suggest the opposite (the persons shortcomings)
Is there a gender difference in self evaluation? how can prolonged low self esteem be remedied?
Males reported higher esteem, womens lack could be caused by negative body image, and the interest they take in social relations

identify the causes and the domains of competence important to self
provide emotional support and social approval
foster achievement (self efficacy)
help adolescents to cope
what is Eriksons term for the gap between childhood security and adult autonomy?
psychosocial moratorium: part of the adolescents identity exploration
what does the adolescent strive for (erikson) *what is the adolescents questioning about according to the instructor
integration/ commitment and to find a consistent sense of self (Erikson)

Adolescents clamor for solutions about identity
faced with deciding who they are, what they are about, and where they are going in life
what are the pieces or aspects of identity
identity is a self portrait composed of:

career and work path a person wants to follow (vocational career identity)

whether a person is conservative liberal or in the middle, of politics (political identity)

single married divorced or cohabiting (relationship identity)

extent to which a person is motivated to achieve and is intellectually oriented (achievement, intellectual identity)

whether a person is heterosexual homosexual or bi (sexual identity)

which part of the world a person is from and how intensely the person identifies with his or her cultural heritage (cultural/ethnic identity)

an individuals personal characteristics (personality)

body image (physical identity)
current consensus regarding the pace of adolescent identity achievement? What does it entail at the bare minimum
identity formation seldom happens nearly nor is it usually cataclysmic. Decisions are not made once and for all but must be made over and over. Identity development is an extraordinarily complex process that doesnt begin or end with adolescence. it begins in infancy with the appearance of attachment, and the emerging independence.

involves commitment to a vocational direction, an ideological stance and a sexual orientation.
what 2 factors did James Marcia use to systematize Eriksons writing on identity development? what are his 4 identity statuses
crisis and commitment

Crisis- a period of identity development during which the adolescent is choosing among meaningful alternatives

Commitment- adolescents show a personal investment in what they are going to do

4 identity statuses: identity diffusion, identity foreclosure, identity moratorium, and identity achievement

identity diffusion- they have not yet experience an identity crisis or made any commitments

identity foreclosure- the state when they have made a commitment but not experience an identity crisis

identity moratorium- who are in the midst of a crisis but have not made a commitment to identity

identity achievement- who has undergone both
what pattern of identity development is evident beyond adolescence
if you develop a healthy identity you are open to more and mroe flexible. Trends in ethnicity, spirituality, sexuality and so on also. And the identity is evergroing

commitment plus exploration, identity achievement
how do family and neighborhood help or hurt identity development
you must understand others to have a good full knowledge of self.

adolescents portraits of self differ depending on who they are around.

they may create different selves depending on their ethnic and cultural background and experience

youth who have difficulty moving between worlds can experience alienation ffrom their school, family and peers. this can lead to other problems, those who can navigate between them seem to be bicultural or multicultural selves
what is bicultural identity
identity formation that occurs when adolescents identify in some ways with their ethnic group and in other ways with the majority culture

mexican and american college students identify with american mainstream culture and their origin culture
in eriksons theory what is the relation between identity and intimacy? are there gender differences in the relation between identity development and intimacy development? what roles can friendship play
intimacy should develop after individuals are on the way to a successful identity

intimacy vs isolation: eriksons 6th stage, during early adulthood years, individuals fact the developmental task of forming intimate relations with others

insecurity and a defensive posture in relations was expresssed differently (between sexes), males displayed greater superficiality and females more dependency.

identity development in adolescence is a precursor to intimacy in romantic relations during emerging adulthood

friends were often a safe context for exploring identity related experiences
what key evidence indicates pronounced adolescent mood swings or storm and stress
pubertal change is associated with increased negative emotions, hormonal influences are small and usually associated with other factors. Environmental experiences may contribute more to the emotions than hormones
illustrate how metacognition (reflective awareness) can contribute to emotional competence?
metacognition- thinking about thinking

during adolescence individuals are more likely to become aware of their emotional cycles, such as guilt about anger. this may improve their ability to cope. also become more skilled at presenting emotions to others. more likely to understand the importance of being able to communicate their emotions to improve quality of relation

emotional comptence- being aware that the expression of emotions plays a major role in relations, coping by using strategies to reduce intensity, understanding inner emotional states,being able to discern others emotions.
regarding big five personality factors, how do they fair in cross cultural research? what dimensions may have been suggested? what may be even more important than the factors for identity achievement
some conclude that only three (extraversion, agreeableness, and consciousness) consistently portray peoples personality traits in diff cultures

optimism is an important personality trait (according to research) of more than 2000 college students, and more closely linked to identity achievement than any of the big five

optimism- involves having a positive outlook on the future
what is the predominant view currently of the relation between personality traits/temperament and the situation/environment? why does the personality vary?
interactionalists, both traits and situations are important. temperament forms the foundation of personality.

extra and intraversion influence what u do often
what might be the relation between personality and temperament? describe one such relation
temperament: an individuals behavioral style and characteristic way of repsonding

through increasing capacities and interactions with the environment, temperament evolves or becomes elaborated across childhood and adolescence into a set of personality traits
does personality or temperament remain the same (continuity), or does it change (discontinuity)? what is an appropriate match between temperament/personality and environment called?
some continuity between certain aspects of temperament in childhood and adjustment in early childhood ( few studies so far so more studies before confirming)

goodness of fit: match between temperament style and environmental demands faced by the individual
what is the distinction between gender and sex
gender- identity, theory of self, (based on biological but more)

sex- Male vs. Female (biological)
what was freuds anatomy is destiny claim?
Can be reflected as play, gender bodies etc. biology is expressed in behavior
what is evolutionary psychologys claim regarding gender related behavior? how has this been criticized
emphasizes functions of gender, based on survival of the fittest (males) and nurture in women. Criticized because they think we are more capable than that, due to culture, etc.
how does eaglys social role theory account for male and female gender differences
Cultural and social structure plays a role, expectations derive from these things
Describe gender role socialization in terms of social cognitive theory
learning through observations of social influences (family, friends, peers)
illustrate how the mass media influence gender related behavior
pressures and socialization cause men and women to have to act a certain way to be in accordance with society. parents act different towards boys and girls "Girls need more"
Describe the gender schema theory of gender development? what does it emphasize
Cognitive developmental theory, trying to figure themselves out and gender, emphasizes, biological but mainly environment
what is the usefulness but also danger of gender stereotypes ?
uses- helps everyday life, keeps things fast and easy

Danger- imposing differences in people

need to be open to change
what gender differences have been found in the brain
females emotion, thicker corpus collosum.

males- viseospacial skills, sexual behavior is higher (hypothalamus)
socioemotional and behavioral differences in male and females
females- passive aggressive, relational. relationship oriented, emotional, disclose feelings, more prosocial
males- mroe physical labobr, inhibition of feelings, physical aggression
what is androgeny? how is it measured in bems sex role inventory? what evidences is there that androgeny is healthy? what is the latest proposal in this field
asertive and gentle, having both attributes; certain words that may seem more masculine/ feminine show where you are at; lower stress, better decision making etc.

Is gender always relevant, why does it matter
what is the gender intensification hypothesis?
later adolescents , less intense gender role importance
what did Gilligan claim about girls
People should bow to girls decision making
How was Gilligan criticized?
no Comparison groups to males, reinforcing stereotypes
which gender is more likely to see sex as linked with love? what are sexual scripts

The female regulates sexual advances
in wht senses is sexuality a transindividual phenomenon according to piaget?
About reproduction, cant understand without complementary relation between male and female genetalia.
what are the five levels of sexual life according to rosenhan and seligman
sexual performance

gender roles, scripts

sexual interest or attraction

sexual orientation

gender identity
According to moshman and the text, how does sexual orientation come about? Does research suggest that it is directly or exclusively caused by particular genes? particular environmental events?
text- genetic, hormonal, cognitive

Mosh- reiterating and complex interactions but no specific event, or gene, can single handedly choose orientation
what is D. Bem interactionist theory of the development of sexual orientation
related to skills and preferences. Exotic but Erotic

not just a gene or preference.
What does r spitzer research seem to suggest concerning the question of whether sexual orientation may be mutable for some individuals
difficult but not impossible to change
how is adolescent egocentrism a risk factor for unprotected sex activity
if you believe it can not happen to you, you tend to have unprotected sex
what are some approaches to reducing rates of problematic teen pregnancy
sex ed, contraception, a future, involvement
How do STDs spread
Blood, semen, vaginal fluids
what are three STIs (viral) what are the symptoms or consequences? Curable?
genital herpes, genital warts, chicken pox.

Herps- sores blisters

Warts-same ^

Not curable
what are three STDs (viral) what are the symptoms or consequences? Curable?
gonorrhea, syphilis, chlamydia, irritations.

Urinary problems (burning, liquid change)

can be curable, often with penicillin
Give an illustration of how self serving cognitive distortions can enable or facilitate forcible sexual behavior. What does recent research tell us about these distortions and their relationship to empathy for others
low empathy correlate with these distortions. if you can not feel for someone else it will not bother you when you do it since you cannot put yourself in their position

blame the person for what they were wearing or doing. Blame the person for losing the wallet (it is their fault). these are the people with low empathy

sex offenders world view involve self serving distortions.
what are two types of sexual harrassment
quid pro quo- working and boss offers promotion for sex

hostile environment
what are three ways in which kohlberg went beyond piaget? But what problem did he acknowledge
problem: would have been better in a true dilema by sequence. Heinz dilemma, he went on to adolescents (older than 10), and he added stages.
what are three alternatives to piagets story pairs and kohlbergs hypothetical dilemmas in moral judgement research?
defining issues relevant to dilema (rests), asks adolescents real life moral dilemmas (walker), No dilemma (instructor)?
what kind of problems are adolescents most concerned with?
relational issues
describe standard and existential development in Gibbs proposed solution. What role does formal operations play
standard- immature (centering on size, power, pragmatic exchanges)

Mature- Requires formal operations, reciprocity, expansion to social systems.

Existential development requires formal qualitative changes but no stage sequence
what is the crucial question concerning morality, according to piaget kohlberg and other moral developmentalists
about grand stages, are they totally relative? Construction of morality through social interaction, is the theory universal?
what three aspects or domains are involved in moralit
moral thought, behavior, and personality
how did piaget study moral judgement
story pairs given to people with a question at the end
through what processes might moral judgement develop, according to piaget and kohlberg
reciprocity and interactions with others, parents can do this
what are three proposed solutions to the problem that kohlbergs highest stages are not universal?
suspend stage 6, broaden what counts at highest stage, 2 phase lifespan (immature and mature levels, instructors view), mature levels require formal operations
evaluate carol gilligans critique of kohlbergs work. Does the research support her claim that kohlberg underplayed the caring perspective in moral judgement development
part right and wrong, (females were not underscored) but there are gender differences
describe the relation between moral judgment and behavior. Is it enough for an adolescent to have good moral values
judgment supports behavior, the values could be for the wrong reason, Later moral judgment tends to lead to antisocial behavior because they cant understand at the same level
what is one reason that individuals who evidence maturity in moral judgment may nonetheless engage in antisocial behavior
different viewpoints on different topics and different feelings towardsactions, distortions (self serving attitudes)
what are the basic processes of moral behavior, according to behaviorists and neo-behaviorists
modeling, reinforcement, and the influence of the situation, processes
in addition to mature moral judment and (and few self-serving cognitive distortions), what helps individual do the right thing despite temptation
accurate social perception, and ego strength
in the realm of moral feelings or emotions, what do many adolescents search for, Erikson
meaning and purpose
through what process does empathy expand, especially during adolescence? does this always happen
understanding feelings and perspective taking; does not always happen
what does moral personality seem to involveq
identity, character exemplars. self relevance, ego strength, strong identity character and making good decisions
what kinds of parenting provide social perspective taking opportunities for moral development? what kinds do not?
inclusion in decision making, inductive discipline, not love withdrawal, or power assertion
what can schools do to promote perspective taking/ moral development? what is an important goal?
moral atmosphere, character education, community service

goal is to become less self centered and more helping and selfless
what are values. What kinds of experience or involvements can foster moral values
values are what you think of life and the environment, deeper than just an action

community service and having a religion can foster values
how are eriksons piagets and fowlers ideas relevant to the development of religious spiritual understanding
children are concrete, inconsistent etc. tends to happen with religion also
what are near death experiences? how can having a near death experience contribute to spiritual development
a set of psych events that cause the person extreme danger; it can cause the person to be spiritual by getting so close to death
in what three ways can cults be distinguished from legitimate religious civic and social organizations generally?
cults are deceptive (recruiting), isolated (elites/superiority), authoritarian, no identity away from cult
why might an individual join a cult? are cult members all mentally ill
not a clear identity of who they are, easily manipulated, not ill just confused.