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59 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Why were the IMVic tests developed?
As a means of separating members of the Enterobacteriaceae
What are the letters of IMVic for?
I for indole production from tryptophan
M for methyl red test for acid production from glucose
V for the Voges-Proskauer test for production of acetoin from glucose
C for the use of citrate as the sole carbon source
What was the source of carbon Lab #14 Rapid Identification Methods?
citric acid
If the indicator turns from green to blue what does this indicate?
Conditions are alkaline
Characteristics of Enterobacteriaceae
aerobic or facultatively anaerobic
gram negative
What are coliforms?
enterobacteriaceae that ferment lactose with acid and gas formation within 48 hours at 35 degrees celsius
What is Enterotube II
a rapid identification method that identifies oxidase-negative, gram-negative bacteria belonging to the family enterobacteriaceae
Antimicrobial agents
chemicals that control the growth of microbes
chemical agents used on inanimate objects to lower the level of microbes on their surface
What are antiseptics?
chemicals that are used on living tissue to decrease the number of microbes
Bactericidal agents
chemical agents that result in bacterial death
Bacteriostatic agents
chemical agents that cause temporary inhibition of growth
Factors to consider in selecting an antimicrobial agent
organic material present
What factors are important in evaluating the effectiveness of antimicrobial agents?
the concentration
length of contact
whether it is lethal or inhibiting
American Official Analytical Chemist's use dilution test
standard method for measuring the effectiveness of a chemical agent
What culture was used in lab 17-Disinfectants and Antiseptics
Staphylococcus aureus
Louis Pasteur
made the observation that some microbes inhibited the growth of others in 1874
against life
What are chemotherapeutic agents?
antimicrobial chemicals absorbed or used internally whether natural (antibiotics) or synthetic
Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC)
the concentration of chemotherapeutic agent at the edge of the zone of inhibition
What is the zone of inhibition size affected by?
the diffusion rate of the chemotherapeutic agent and the growth rate of the organism
In Lab 18-Antimicrobial Drugs, which plates and broth were used? How did you get from ml to cm?
Mueller Hinton agar
pseudomonas aeruginosa broth
multiplied by 10 to get from ml to cm
Ignaz Semmelwies
established a policy that resulted in the drop in the death rate due to puerperal sepsis from 12% to 1.2% in one year
Handwashing in hospitals
as low as 31%
In Lab #19 Hand Scrubbing, which plates were used?
used blood agar plates
Upper respiratory system
nose and throat
Lower respiratory system
larynx, trachea, bronchial tubes and alveoli
Why is the lower respiratory tract normally sterile?
because of the efficient functioning of the ciliary escalator
Microbial antagonism
certain microorganisms of the normal microbiota suppress the growth of other microorganisms through competion for nutrients and production of inhibitory substances
What are the predominant organisms in throat cultures?
streptococcal species
beta (bad-beta ate it)
complete hemolysis giving a clear zone with a clean edge around the colony
incomplete hemolysis, producing methemoglobin and a green cloudy zone around the colony (good)
What characterizes gamma-hemolysis?
no hemolysis and no change in the blood agar around the colony
S. pyogenes
90% of streptococcal infections are caused by b-hemolytic group A strepcocci
sensitive to bacitracin
Optochin sensitivity
used to distinguish pathogenic S. pneumoniae from other a-hemolytic streptococci
does not bubble
Resident bacteria of urethra
streptococcus, bacteroides, mycobacterium, neisseria and enterics
Bacteria in urine
not considered an indication of urinary tract infection unless there are 1000 bacteria of one species or 100 coliforms per milliliter of urine
inflammation of the urinary bladder
inflammation of the kidney
Urine sample
must be a clean catch, midstream into sterile jar
Bacteria of Urogenital tract
special 10ul calibrated loop was used instead of regular inoculating loop
In Bacteria of Urogenital tract, which plates were used?
used blood agar plate and MacConkey agar-which turns pink if growing enterics
P. aeruginosa infections
are characterized by blue green pus
The most common reportable communicable disease in the US, caused by the gram negative diplococci Neisseria gonorrhoeae
In Chemical Methods of Control: Antimicrobial Drugs, which plates were used?
used Mueller-Hinton agar plates
In Chemical methods of Control: Antimicrobial Drugs, which cultures were used?
used cultures
Staphylococcus aureus
Escherichia coli
Pseudomonas aeruginosa
What was the purpose of Chemical methods of Control: Disinfectants and Antiseptics
purpose was to time exposure of staphylococcus aureus to 10% bleach and other disinfectants and measuring growth
oxidase negative and feed on glucose
Procedure for Rapid Identification Methods
1.pick a well isolated colony with the inoculating end of wire
2. hold the bent end of the wire and withdraw the needle through all twelve compartments with a turning motion
3.reinsert the wire through all twelve compartments. Then withdraw it to the notch on the wire. Break the wire at the notch.
4. Using the broken wire punch holes through the foil covering the air inlets in the last eight compartments. Replace caps
Citrobacter freundii
- Indole
+ Methyl red
- Voges-Proskauer
+ Citrate
Enterbacter aerogenes
- Indole
-Methyl red
+ Voges Proskauer
+ Citrate
Serratia marcescens
+ or - for methyl red
+ Vokes Proskauer
+ citrate
Proteus vulgaris
+ Indole
+ methyl red
- Voges proskauer
-(v) Citrate
Bacillus subtillis
catalase positive
catalase positive
catalase negative
In Respiration lab #13, which plate was used?
TSA agar plate
Steps for Isolation of Bacteria by Dilution Techniques
streak first sector making as many streaks as possible
turn plate to next sector and streak
turn plate to next sector and streak
turn plate to next sector and streak