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95 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
What is th anticodon for the codon GAU?
Which nitrogenous bases are pyrimidine?
C & T
Which nitrogenous bases are Purines?
A & G
Transfer RNA (tRNA) ias also known as an _________ molecule.
What is meant when we say DNA has anti-parallel strands?
One strand goes up, one goes down - they "read" in opposite directions
What are the components of the DNA nucleotide?
Deoxyribose, nitrogenous base, phosphate group
What are the components of the RNA nucleotide?
Ribose, nitrogenous base, phosphate group
What is the monomer of the polynucleotide molecule?
Name the enzyme that synthesizes DNA during replication
DNA polymerase
In what direction does DNA synthesis occur?
5' to 3'
Where does DNA replication initiate on the DNA molecule?
origin of replication
What are the substrates for DNA replication?
nucleotide triphosphates
Where does the energy for DNA replication come from?
from the hydrolysis of 2 phosphates from the triphosphate substrate
Is DNA replication conservative or semi-conservative?
What is a bacterial operon?
Genes that are involved in a common process that are all regulated together as a single unit.
What are polyribosomes?
many ribosomes attached to and translating the same strand of mRNA
Which operon is an example of gene repression?
trp operon
Which operon is an example of gene induction?
Lac operon
How many initiation (start) codons are there?
How many nonsense (stop) codons are there?
How many of the possible 64 triplet codons code for amino acids?
Why is the genetic code described as redundant?
b/c several codons code for the same amino acid
Why is the genetic code described as unambiguous?
each triplet codon codes for 1 specific codon
Why is the genetic code described as universal?
Almost all organisms use the same code
Name the enzyme used in the transcription of an RNA molecule from the template strand of DNA
RNA polymerase
Where on the gene does transcription initiate?
@ the promoter region of the gene
Where does transcription stop on the gene?
when the RNA polymerase comes to the termination sequence
RNA: single stranded, uses U instead of T, uses ribose as the sugar.

DNA: dble stranded, uses T instead of U, uses deoxyribose as the sugar
What direction as the mRNA translated?
5' to 3'
What molecule is used for energy during translation
GTP - guanine triphosphate
What are the two important sites on the tRNA molecule?
The amino acid binding site and the anticodon site
What is translocation (during the elongation process of translation)?
It is when tRNA inside the ribosomes and move to the left and detatch, which allows the next tRNA to add its amino acid to the growing protein
What binds to the stop codon during the termination process of translation?
release factors
Where does transcription take place in the prokaryotic and eukaryotic cell?
prokaryotic: cytoplasm

eukaryotic: nucleus
Where does translation take place in the prokaryotic and eukaryotic cell?
What is coupled transcription-translation
when both activities take place in the same compartment - as the the mRNA is being created, the ribosomes and tRNA can immediately begin to translate it before it is "finished" (only in prokaryotic cells)
Genotype vs. Phenotype
Geno: actual gene

Pheno: expresses trait
haploid vs. diploid
one set of genes vs. two sets
What kind of mutations in the amino acid sequence can a base substitution (point mutation) in the DNA cause?
missense or nonsense mutations
What kind of mutations in the amino acid sequence can a deletion or insertion in the DNA cause?
frameshift (major mutation!!)
What are examples of mutagens
chemicals (carcinogens), radiation
what causes thymine dimers?
UV radiation
Name two ways thymine dimers can be fixed:
exposure to light/photo-repair & excision repair by intracellular enzymes
What is the basic taxonomic unit
What are the three domains that all living organisms fall into on planet earth?
Eukarya, Bacteria, Archaea
Who is Linneaus?
the man who developed the taxonomic nomenclature system
What is a strain or subspecie?
a bacteria/organism that is only slightly different from a species (only different by 1-2 genes)
What are examples of morphological characteristics?
bacterial shape, flagella, endospores, glycocallyx
Name the Gram positive cocci that causes strep throat
Streptococcus pyrogenes
Name the Gram positive comma shaped rod that causes intense diarrhea due to production of a toxin
Vibrio cholera
Name the Gram negative diplococci that cause a sexually transmitted disease
Neisseria gonorrhea
DNA sequence homology vs. amino acid homology
DNA sequnce = looking at the similarities in the actual sequence of bases\sequence of codons

amino acid = looking at the similarities in the sequence of amino acids
Name the Gram negative aerobic bacilli that are transmittes from the environment and cause a respiratory infection
Legionella pneumophilia
Name the Gram negative bacilli that causes an intestinal infection, often seen among children in daycare centers
Shigella dysentariae
Name the spirochete that causes a sexually transmitted disease
Treponema pallidum (syphilis)
What are serological tests?
tests that use antibodies to identify microrganisms
Name differential staining procedures that are used to help identify bacteria
gram stain, acid-fast stain, spore stain, capsule stain
Name the bacteria that do not have a cell wall and causes a respiratory infection
Mycoplasma pneumoniae
Name the bacteria that cause ulcers
Helicobacter pylori
Name the Gram negative bacilli that cause a prolonged upper respiratory infection in children where the victims cough uncontrollably
Bordetella pertussiss
Name the Gram positive bacilli that form endospores and are transmitted from animals causing skin,intestinal, or respiratory infections
Bacillus anthracis
Name the intracellular parasite that can cause blindness if the eye infection is not treated
Chlamydia trachomatis
Are bacteria haploid or diploid?
Define plasmid
Extrachromasomal, circular DNA that is smaller than regular DNA and replicated autonomously
What are ribosomes made up of?
proteins & RNA molecules
define gene expression
transcription + translation
Define gene
sequences of bases in DNA that code for a functional product. The functional unit of DNA.
What is a F-pilus
a sex pilus. Needed for bacterial conjugation
How is the base composition of the DNA of an organism measured?
% G+C
What are the kingdoms under the domain Eukarya?
Protista, Fungi, Plantae, Animalia
Name and acid-fast, slow growing aerobic bacteria that causes a respiratory infection
Mycobacterium tuberculosis
Name two bacteria that are intracellular parasites. Which one requires an insect vector?
Chlamydia trachomatis, Rickettsia rickettsii.

RR requires an insect vector
What type of DNA sequences do restriction endonucleases bind to?
pallindromic sequences
What are the different ways DNA homology can be analyzed between two bacteria?
Base composition, in-solution hybridization, DNA sequencing, & comparison of DNA fingerprints
Name 3 ways bacteria may pick up genes from other bacteria:
transformation, transduction, conjugation
What is RTF? Where is it found?
RTF is a gene that codes for the formation of a sex pilus. Found on the R plasmid
What type of mutations do base analogs cause?
missense and nonsense
What type of mutations do intercalating agents cause?
Which plasmid is required for conjugation?
What is required for transduction to take place?
A bacteriophage (a bacterial virus)
Which plasmid has multi-antibiotic resistant genes and multi-heavy metal resistant genes?
What is a missense mutation?
mutation in the sequence of amino acids that changes the amino acid.
What is a nonsense mutation?
mutation in the amino acid sequence that prematurely ends the amino acid sequence (prematurely ends the protein)
Induced mutation vs. spontaneous mutation
induced= caused by outside forces (chemicals, radiation, etc.)

spontaneous= error caused by DNA/RNA polymerase
Name the spirochete that is transmitted by a tick and may cause a bulls-eye rash
Borrelia burdorferi (Lymes disease)
Name the obligate anaerobe that forms endospores and produces a toxin that causes all muscles to contract
Clostridium tetani (tetanus)
Name the Gram positive irregularly-shaped bacilli that cause a repiratory infection and cause the formation of a pseudomembrane in the back of the throat
Corynebacterium diphtheriae
What is a codon?
it is a set of three nitrogenous bases located on the DNA that code for a specific amino acid.
What are restriction endonucleases? What are they used for?
they are enzymes that recognize specific pallindromic sequences in DNA and cut the DNA into segments at those points.

They are used to cut up DNA for DNA fingerprinting.
What is a transposon?
segments of DNA that are able to move from one region to another.
What is a bacteriocin?
it is a toxin that kills other bacteria.
Name 5 different plasmid bacteria may have:
F=plasmid, R-plasmid, virulence plasmids, dissimilation plasmids, bacteriocinogens
Bacterial transformation vs. transduction vs. conjugation
transformation: small pieces of naked DNA are taken up by competent cells & recombined

Transduction: uses a bacteriophage to transfer small pieces of DNA

Conjugation: requires direst contact between donor and recipient via f-plilus, transfer long segments of DNA.

What does the initiation of translation entail?
small subunit of ribosome binds to mRNA, a tRNA binds to the codon on the mRNA, and the large subunit of the ribosome attatches to the initiation tRNA.
Process requires energy and initiation factors
Where are the ribosomes located in the prokaryotic and eukaryotic cell?