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36 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
Prokaryote comes from the Greek words meaning...
Eukaryote comes from the Greek words meaning...
True nucleus
Name some distinguishing traits for prokaryotes.
There are 6 main ones listed in the chapter: One circular chromosome, not in a membrane, no histones, no organelles, peptidoglycan cell walls if bacteria, pseudomurein cell walls if Archaea, and binary fission
Name some distinguishing traits for eukaryotes.
There are 5 listed in the chapter, they are: paired chromosomes in nuclear membrane, histones, organelles, polysaccharide cell walls, and a mitotic spindle.
What is the main feature that distinguishes prokaryotes from eukaryotes?
The nucleus.
What are the three basic types of bacteria?
Baccillus (rod-shaped), Coccus (spherical), and Spiral (spirillum, vibro, spirochete).
What are the arrangements of bacteria?
Pairs: Diplo- Ex. Diplococci
Clusters: Staph- Ex. Staphylococci
Chains: Strept- Ex. Streptococci
How would you identify streptococci under a microscope?
They would be circular shaped bacteria in a chain.
Describe the structure and function of glycocalyx.
An outside cell wall, usually sticky. If referred to as a capsule it is neatly organized. If referred to as a slime layer it is unorganized and loose.
What is EPS?
Extracellular polysaccharide, a substance that allows a cell to attach to environment.
What do capsules prevent?
What is a flagella?
A flagella is a long tail like structure made up of chains of flagellin, attached to a protein hook, anchored to the wall and membrane by the basal body, and can be in different positions.
How do cells with flagella move?
Rotate the flagella to run, swim or tumble. Also can swarm if there are many flagella. They move toward or away stimuli called taxis which can be phototaxis or chemotaxis.
What are axial filaments?
Also called endoflagella, are in spirochetes, anchored at one end of a cell, are structurally similar to flagellum, and rotate to cause cell movement.
What are fimbriae?
The are hair like appendages, allow attachment, adherence and biofilm.
What are pili?
They facilitate transfer of DNA from one cell to another, have gliding and twitching motility, and number one or two per cell.
Why are bacterial capsules medically important?
They are usually more chemically resistant and therefore can be harder to kill using antibiotics.
How do bacteria move?
They move using flagella, fimbriae, and pili.
What is the cell wall made up of in bacteria?
What is peptidoglycan?
A polymer of disaccharide: N-acetylglucosamine (NAG) and N-acetylmuramic acid (NAM).
What are some details about a gram positive bacteria's cell wall?
Thick peptidoglycan, teichoic acids, may regulate movement of cations, polysaccharides provide antigenic variation, 2-ring basal body, disrupted by lysozme, and is penicillin sensitive.
What are some details about a gram negative bacteria's cell wall?
Thin peptidoglycan, outer membrane, periplasmic space, 4-ring basal body, endotoxin, and tetracycline sensative
What are some details about acid-fast bacteria's cell walls?
They are like gram positive, waxy lipi (mycolic acid) is bound to peptidoglycan.
What are some details about mycoplasma's cell walls?
They lack cell walls! They have sterols in plasma membrane.
What are some details about archaea cell walls?
No cell walls, or walls of pseudomurein which lack NAM and D-amino acids.
What does lysozyme do to a cell wall?
Lysozyme digests disaccharide in peptidogylcan
What is a protoplast?
A wall-less cell.
What is a spheroplast?
A wall-less gram-positive cell.
What are protoplasts and spheroplasts susceptible to?
Osmotic lysis.
What are L forms?
Wall-less cells that swell into irregular shapes.
Why are drugs that target cell wall synthesis useful?
They are useful because animal cells do not contain cell walls and therefore won't be damaged by the cell-wall destroying drug.
Why are mycoplasmas resistant to antibiotics that interfere with cell wall synthesis?
They have no cell walls.
How do protoplasts differ from L forms?
L forms swell into irregular shapes while protoplasts just don't have a cell wall.
What is the structural components of the prokaryotic plasma membrane?
Phospholipid bilayer, peripheral proteins, integral proteins, transmembrane, and proteins.
What are the chemical components of the prokaryotic plasma membrane?
It is selectively permeable, there are enzymes for ATP production, and there are photosynthetic pigments on folding called chromatophores or thylakoids.
What are the functions of the prokaryotic plasma membrane?
Simple and facilitated diffusion, osmosis, active transportation and group translocation.