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25 Cards in this Set

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Adaptation involves a complex adjustment in biochemistry or genetics that enables long term survival and growth. The term to describe the totality of adaptations organisms make to their habitats ...


The range of temperatures for microbial growth can be expressed as three...

Cardinal temperatures

The lowest temperature that permits a microbe's continued growth and metabolism below this temperature its activities are inhibited...

Minimum temperature

The highest temperature at which growth and metabolism can proceed if the temperature rises slightly above this growth will stop ...

Maximum temperature

This temperature covers a small range intermediate between the minimum and maximum which promotes the fastest rate of growth and metabolism only rarely is this temperature a single point

Optimum temperature

A micro organism (bacterium, archaea, fungus or algae) with an optimum temperature below 15°C but generally can grow to 0°C. It generally likes the cold.


Organisms that grow at intermediate temperatures. Most fall into the range of 20°C to 40°C.


These microbes can survive short exposure to high temperatures but are normally mesophiles are common contaminates of heated or pasteurized foods. Examples include heat resistant cysts such as giardia or spore former such as bacillus and clostridium.

Thermoduric microbes

Heat loving microbes that grows optimally at temperatures greater than 45°C associated with volcanic activity, in compost piles, and in habitats directly exposed to the sun.


These microbes grow at between 80°C and 121°C strict ones are so heat tolerant the researchers may use a heat sterilizing device to isolate them in a culture.


This micro can use gaseous oxygen in its metabolism and possesses the enzyme needed to produce toxic oxygen products


An organism that cannot grow without oxygen

Obligate aerobe

This is an arrow that does not require oxygen for its metabolism and is capable of growth in the absence of it. This type of organism metabolizes by aerobic respiration when oxygen is present but in it's absence it adopts anaerobic mode of metabolism such as fermentation.

Facultative anaerobes

This does not grow at normal atmospheric concentrations of oxygen but requires a small amount of it 1% to 15% in metabolism


Lacks the metabolic enzymes system for using oxygen gas in respiration


These also lack the enzymes for processing toxic oxygen they cannot tolerate any free oxygen in the intermediate environment and will die if exposed to it.

Obligate anaerobes

Do not utilize oxygen gas but can survive and grow in its presence. These anaerobes are not harmed by oxygen and some of them presents alternate mechanisms for breaking down peroxide and superoxide.

Aerotolerant anaerobes

These grow best at higher CO2 tensions that are normally present in the atmosphere


Although most micro organisms living in fresh soil, freshwater, or the bodies of plants and animals. Living within the range of pH 5.5 to 8.


Micro organisms that like acidic environments


Micro organisms that like basic or alkaline environments


Living in habitats with a high solute concentration


Uncommon type of Osmo file requires a high concentration of salt


Some microbes adapt to wide concentrations in solutes such organisms are remarkably resistant to salt, even though they do not normally reside in high salt environments.


Deep-sea microbes that exist under pressure is many times that of the atmosphere