• Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off

Card Range To Study



Play button


Play button




Click to flip

Use LEFT and RIGHT arrow keys to navigate between flashcards;

Use UP and DOWN arrow keys to flip the card;

H to show hint;

A reads text to speech;

70 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
What Streptococcus pyogenes enzyme can lyse blood clots and fibrin deposits?
What S. pyogenes enzyme prevents the recruitment of phagocytic cells?
C5a peptidase
How is S. pyogenes transmitted?
Crowding and respiratory droplets
Is it difficult to differentiate strep throat from viral infection?
Yes, without serological or bacteriologic test
What genetic transfer leads to scarlet fever?
Complication of strep pharyngitis, bacteriophage causes bacteria to produce pyrogenic exotoxin
What is the appearance of the tongue with scarlet fever?
White tongue coating to “strawberry tongue”
What is the appearance of impetigo (pyoderma)?
Vesicles to pustules to crusting in subcutaneous tissue of the face, arms and legs, straw colored, occurs especially near the nose
What are the S. pyogenes infections of the skin?
Toxic shock
Necrotizing fasciitis
Strep pharyngitis
Scarlet fever
Rheumatic fever
What are characteristics of Strep toxic shock syndrome?
• 45% mortality
• Soft tissue inflammation, pain, fever, chills, malaise, vomiting, diarrhea.
• Pain intensifies as disease progresses to shock and organ failure.
• Strep can be isolated from blood.
• At risk: immunocompromised, drug and alcohol users, cancer and heart pts.
• Can spread throughout the body
• Treated with penicillin
What is the S. pyogenes infection of heart valves?
Rheumatic Fever
What drug is administered for Strep infections if the patient is allergic to penicillin?
Erythromycin or oral cephalosporin
Newborns are at risk for septicemia and meningitis if the mother is carrying __________ in the vagina?
S. agalactiae/Group B Strep (GBS)
If a woman is positive, she should be treated with intravenous ________ 4 hours before birth.
IV Penicillin G
What Strep bacteria is associated with inner ear infections?
Streptococcus pneumoniae
What structure on the bacteria makes it resistant to phagocytosis?
What are the characteristics of Strep. pneumoniae associated pneumonia?
Most common strain that causes pneumonia.
Bacteria replicate in alveolar space, neutrophils and macrophages accumulate, resolution occurs after Abs are made to capsule, abrupt onset of severe chills, fever, blood-tinged sputum. Mortality rate 5%
What valent vaccines are available for infants and adults?
For pneumonia:
Infants: 7-valent conjugate vaccine
Adults: 23-valent pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine
What is the name of the virus that caused smallpox?
What vaccine was used to eradicate smallpox?
Where is the smallpox rash abundant?
Face, extremities.
Sparse on torso.
What is the reservoir for smallpox?
Human host
What kind of vaccine is the smallpox vaccine?
Single serotype
What is characteristic of the molluscum contagiosum nodules?
Common among children in the tropics.

Papules to pearly, umbilicated nodules, 2-10mm in diameter, central caseous plug that can be expressed, usually found in clusters (5-20), cytoplasmic inclusions
Can molluscum be sexually transmitted?
What is considered the most common sexually transmitted entity?
What virus is responsible for genital warts?
What is the histology associated with HPV infected cells? (Pap smear slide)
Exfoliated cervicovaginal cells, perinuclear cytoplasmic vacuolization termed koilocytosis
Has no inclusions
What kind of vaccine is the HPV vaccine?
Subunit protein, inactivated
Is herpes simplex enveloped or naked? Is the genome DNA or RNA?
Enveloped, DNA
What is the site of latency for herpes simplex?
Neurons - dorsal root ganglion
What disease is associated with herpes simplex 1 and 2?
What is the portal of entry for VZV?
Droplets from sneezing enter mucosa of upper respiratory track
What disease is associated with VZV?
Chicken pox, Shingles
What is the recurrent form of VZV?
What is the site of latency for VZV?
Neuron, in nerve roots
What herpes virus is associated with organ transplantation complications?
What herpes virus causes retinitis in AIDS patients?
What is the site of latency for CMV?
T cells, macrophages
What herpes virus is associated with infectious mononucleosis?
What is the site of latency for EBV?
B cell
What herpes virus is associated with roseola?
What is the leading cause of viral congenital defects today?
What herpes virus is associated with Kaposi’s sarcoma?
What diseases are associated with enterococcus?
UTI, peritonitis, endocarditis (nosocomial)
What virulence factors are associated with anthrax?
Protective Antigen (PA) Edema Factor (EF) Lethal Factor (LF), and capsule
The lethal toxin causes macrophages to release _________.
Tumor necrosis factor (TNF)
What is the appearance of the lesion in cutaneous anthrax?
Painless papule progressing into an ulcer, painful lymphadenopathy, massive edema
Do lymph nodes swell in response to ocular anthrax?
Is gastrointestinal anthrax deadly?
Yes, near 100% mortality rate
What bacteria causes fried rice associated food poisoning?
Bacillus cereus
What bacteria can grow on cold cuts in the refrigerator?
Listeria monocytogenes/human listeriosis
Pregnant women are told to avoid ___________ cheese and deli meats to avoid complications with ____________.
Unpasteurized, human listeriosis
Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae is an occupational ______________ disease.
What pathogen causes marked swelling of the parotid glands?
What risks are associated with Mumps infection?
Contagious period is before symptoms occur, asymptomatic shedding, may be associated with juvenile diabetes, very serious in immunocompromised people
Who is at risk for congenital rubella infection?
Those born to mothers with rubella during pregnancy
What are Koplik spots?
Spots on the mucosa of the mouth that are specific to measles and precede the measles rash, but may be seen for the first day or two after rash appears
What causes the measles rash?
T cells are destroying the virally infected endothelial cells in the capillary-bleeding of skin
What is the portal of entry for the measles?
Droplets enter respiratory tract
What kind of vaccine is the MMR?
Live attenuated vaccine
What virus is the most common cause of infantile gastroenteritis?
Rotavirus Type A
Is there a vaccine available for rotavirus?
Yes - Oral vaccine is available for babies at about 1.5 - 2 mos old
What virus that can easily contaminate water and food causes sporadic outbreaks of vomiting and diarrhea on cruise ships?
What is the portal of entry for HIV?
Blood, semen, vaginal fluid, pre-ejaculate, or breast milk can transmit HIV.
The four major routes of transmission are unprotected sexual intercourse, contaminated needles, breast milk, and transmission from an infected mother to her baby at birth.
What cell is the reservoir for HIV?
What cell is destroyed by HIV leading to the development of AIDS?
Is HIV an RNA virus or DNA?
What kind of chemotherapy is used to treat HIV infections?
Antiviral Therapy (NRTI, NNRTI)
Protease Inhibitors
Combination Therapy
When are antibodies against HIV present?
Per CDC website:
Most people will develop detectable antibodies within 2 to 8 weeks (the average is 25 days). Ninety-seven percent of persons will develop antibodies in the first 3 months following the time of their infection. In very rare cases, it can take up to 6 months to develop antibodies to HIV.
What group of individuals have the highest incidence of HIV in the United States?
Homosexual males (49%)
Intravenous drug users (26%)
Heterosexuals (9.3%)
Homosexual intravenous drug users (6.4%)
Blood Transfusions (1.3%)
Unknown (8%)
Prostitutes, newborns of HIV mothers, blood and organ transplant recipients before 1985.