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50 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
Why does a bridge become icy first in comparison to the road on ground?
The bridge is able to lose heat (energy) from top and bottom, unlike the road on ground.
Explain how, in winter, ice can form on puddles (in shaded areas) when the temperature above and below the puddle is slightly above freezing.
strong wind and dry conditions lead to evaporative cooling.

water droplets at the surface are constantly evaporating which is a cooling process and the molecules are also slowing down allowing them to become rigid. With cooler temps above and below, ice can form on the puddle due to energy loss.
In northern latitudes, the oceans are warmer in the summer than in the winter. In which season do the oceans lose heat most rapidly to the atmosphere by conduction?
winter even though the oceans are cooler because there is a bigger temperature contrast.

in conduction processes, heat always travels from warmer to colder regions. Therefore, more heat would be lost in the winter.
How fast is heat transferred away from the surface of the moon?
electromagnetic radiation.

about as fast as it comes in since there is no atmosphere to slow it down
If water vapor were no longer present in the atmosphere, how would the earth's energy budget be affected?
no absorption of infrared radiation from earth would lead to cooling.
At the top of the earth's atmosphere during early summer (northern hemisphere) above what altitude would you expect to receive the most solar radiation in one day? at the surface?
in one day: tilt 10 deg
mid and high latitudes the summer sun would be lower and winter sun higher == cooler summers and milder winters

surface: tilt 40 deg
mid/high latitudes the summer sun would be higher and the winter sun lower == warmer summers and cooler winters
How would the lag in daily temperature experienced over land compare to the daily temperature lag over water?
Because water hears and cools more slowly than land, the lag in daily temps over water is usually much larger than that experience over land
Where would you expect to experience the smallest variation in temp from year to year and from month to month? why?
on a small island near the equator because here there would be a very small annual temp range
In the northern hemisphere, south facing mountain slopes normally have a greater diurnal range in temperature than north facing slopes. why?
because the southfacing slopes are receiving suns energy longer thatn northfacing slopes. this causes southfacing slopes daytime temps to be larger than northfacing ones causing the southfacing slopes to have a greater temp difference between night and day.
sources and sinks of Nitrogen
sources: volcanic eruptions and plant/animal decy

sinks: soil bacteria, ocean processes, lightning, fixed to roots of legumes
what percent of air in nitrogen?
what percent of air is oxygen?
sources and sinks of oxygen?
sources: photosynthesis

sinks: organic decay, breathing, and chemical combinations
condensation releases what?
latent heat

which causes heating and is major source of atmospheric energy
why are greenhouse gases important?
bc they absorb outgoing radiation from earth
what percent of atmosphere is water vapor?
what percent of atmosphere is carbon dioxide?
sources and sinks of carbon dioxide
sources: vegetation decay, volcanic eruption, exhalation of animals, burning of fossil fuels, and deforestation

sinks: photosynthesis and ocean phytoplankton
effects of greenhouse effect?
traps outgoing radiation which increases temps --> global warming which melts polar ice caps which increases sea levels which has huge effects on agriculture
thermal energy is quantified by what?
TEMPERATURE, obviously
internal energy is what?
the sum of the kinetic energy and potential energy due to the molecules and atoms of a system
thermal energy is what?
kinetic energy associated with random motions of molecules and atoms
heat associated with phase change is what?
latent heat
heat is transferred in what 3 ways in atmosphere
what is conduction?
transfer of heat from molecule to molecule

always warmer to cooler

speed depend on material
what is convection?
transfer of heat by the motion of or within a fluid

can't happen in a solid

very important
horizontal motion is called what?
what is albedo?
ratio of total reflected to total incoming solar radiation

what kind of absorbers does the atmosphere contain?
Low thick clouds reflect solar radiation which is a [blank] effect
High thin cirrus clouds absorb infrared radiation which is a [blank] effect.
calm cloudless nights are [warmer/cooler] than cloudy ones.
radiation can be classified by the
electromagnetic spectrum
earth is closer to sun in january than in july, what effect does this have on seasons?
little or none
23.5 deg has direct sunlight in northern hemispheres summer time, not the equator

why does the arctic circle get months of light or dark?
bc of tilt
where are the longest days in a northern hemisphere summer?
polar latitudes
why are summers hotter in new york than in alaska?
what is insolation?
incoming solar radiation
what is insolation affected by?
angle of incidence
variations in day length
effects of incidence angle?
as energy comes in at an indirect angle, it reduces the effect of constant sunlight bc the energy scatters
because polar regions have constant sunlight is there more energy than at midlatitudes?
no because of the angle of incidence
what causes global wind circulation?
temp imbalance of incoming solar radiation
solar radiation is from the
infrared radiation is from the
cold air is [more/less] dense than warm air
greater diurnal and annual variations are [greater/less] in dry climates than in humid ones
daily temp variation is controlled by
input and output of energy
during the day, input radiation exceeds output radiation which [blanks] the surface air
during night, output radiation exceeds input radiation which [blank] the surface air