• Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off

Card Range To Study



Play button


Play button




Click to flip

Use LEFT and RIGHT arrow keys to navigate between flashcards;

Use UP and DOWN arrow keys to flip the card;

H to show hint;

A reads text to speech;

20 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back

The MSM was developed by...

Atkinson and Shriffrin (1968)


Environmental stimuli -> sensory memory -> attention -> short term memory -> maintenance rehearsal -> long term memory

retrieval can happen from LTM to STM

maintenance rehearsal keeps memories in STM

information retrieval from STM

Sensory memory

Composed of several stores: eyes, ears, nose, fingers etc and corresponding areas of the brain.

Constantly receiving info but most of this receives no attention and remains in the sensory stores for a very brief period.

If a person's attention is focused on one of the sensory stores, then the data is transferred to STM.

Attention is...

the first step to remembering something.

Short-term memory (STM)

Info held here is in a 'fragile' state.

Will decay relatively quickly if it isn't rehearsed.

Will also disappear if new information inters STM, displacing the original information. Happens because STM has a limited capacity.

Long-term memory (LTM)

Move from STM to LTM happens by rehearsal.

Initially rehearsal maintains info in the STM but the more something is rehearsed, the more lasting the memory will be. Maintenance rehearsal.

Maintenance rehearsal is...

largely verbal.


A description of how memory works in terms of 3 'stores':

>your senses



Attention and rehearsal explain how data is transferred.


Applications -- dealing with hippocampal damage.

Strong evidence to support claims for duration, capacity and encoding.

Has stimulated a lot of research which leads to increased understanding.

Serial position effect (Glanzer and Cunitz), role of hippocampus (Squire et al.), case studies of brain damage (e.g., HM and Clive Wearing).

Evidence for the three stores

> serial position effect (Glanzer and Cunitz)

> role of hippocampus (Squire et al.)

> case studies of brain damage (HM and Clive Wearing)

Serial Position Effect

Glanzer and Cunitz (1966)

Ppts given a list of 20 words, presented one at a time, then asked to recall any they could remember.

Tended to remember the ones from the start of the list (a primary effect) and ones from the end of the list (a recency effect). Less good at recalling ones from the middle.

PRIMACY EFFECT -- first words are best rehearsed and transferred to LTM.

RECENCY EFFECT -- these (recent/last) words are in STM when people start recalling the list.

PET scans and fMRI

Take images of the active brain and enable us to see what region is active when a person is doing particular tasks.

Research has found that the prefrontal contex is active when individuals are working on a task in STM (Beardsley, 1997).

The hippocampus is active when LTM is engaged (Squire et al, 1992).


Scoville and Milner (1957)

Brain damage caused by an operation to remove the hippocampus from both sides of his brain to reduce the severe epilepsy he suffered.

HM's personality and intelelct remained intact but he could not form new long-term memories, though he could remember things from before the surgery.

Suggests that the hippocampus may serve as a 'gateway' through which new memories must pass before entering permanent storage in the brain for anything that has happened since.


Oversimplifies memory structures and processes.

STM doesn't function as a unitary store (e.g, KF, Shallice and Warrington)

LTM is not a unitary store (e.g., semantic, episodic, procedural memories)

Processing more important than maintenance rehearsal (Craik and Lockhart compared shallow, phonemic and semantic processing)

STM is not independent of LTM -- Ruchkin et al compared words and pseudo words involved different brain activity.


> use of word lists

>ppts often psychology students (younger people have different memories and capacities)

>lab experiments (demand characteristics, experimenter bias but well controlled)


>guiding rehabilitation of people with hippocampal damage


Shallice and Warrington (1970)

KF suffered brain damage which resulted in difficulty dealing with verbal info in STM but a normal ability to process visual info.

Suggests that STM is not a single store.


Schachter et al. (2000)

Suggested that there are 4 long-term stores:

> semantic memory (memory for knowledge about the world, including knowledge about words)

> episodic memory (memory for what you did yesterday or a film you saw last week)

> procedural memory (memory for riding a bike or learning how to read)

> perceptual-representation system (PRS) (memory related to perceptual priming -- enhanced recognition of specific stimuli (such as words) which have been seen before). E.G give a list of words then a degraded version, e.g, seeing TOBOGGAN and then _O_O_GA_.

Spiers et al (2001)

(linked to Schachter et al)

Studied memory in 147 patients with amnesia. In all cases their procedural memories and perceptual-representation systems were intact but the other two systems were not intact, showing that LTM is not unitary.

Logie (1999)

Pointed out that STM actually relies on LTM and therefore cannot come first as suggested in the MSM.

Consider the following lists of letters: AQABBCITVIBM

In order to chunk this you need to recall the meaningful groups of letters and such meanings are stored in LTM.