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38 Cards in this Set

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Displacement

The distance travelled in a particular directions from a specified origin.

Velocity

The rate of change of displacement with time.




ms^-1

Speed and Distance

The scalar versions of velocity and displacement.

Accelerations

The rate of change of velocity with time.




ms^-2

Instantaneous

The value or quantity measured at an instant in time.

SUVAT Equations

s = 0.5(u + v)t


s = ut + 0.5at^2


v^2 = u^2 + 2as


a = (v - u) / t



Acceleration due to gravity (g)

g = 9.8 ms^-2 ( = 10 ms^-2)

Terminal Velocity

When air resistance is equal to the opposing forces (proportional to the speed), results in no net forces and constant velocity.

Relative Velocity

Velocity measured from the point of view of another (moving) object.

Weight

W = mg




Measured in Newtons (N).

What is a Newton

The force required to accelerate an object of 1kg by 1 ms^-2.

Normal Reaction

When two objects in contact each exert a force on the other which is perpendicular to the surface.

Tension

A force produced on a body when opposing forces are stretching it.




Compression force is the opposite.

Upthrust

An upward force on a body which is immersed in a fluid (liquid or gas).

Lift

An upward force on the wing of an aircraft which due to the airflow around it.

Translational Equilibrium

When the net force of an object is 0 in all directions.

Rotational Equilibrium

When the net torque on an object is 0 about all axes.

Newton's First Law

A body will continue its state of rest or of uniform motion in a straight line unless acted upon by an external force.

Inertia

The property of matter which makes it resist acceleration.

Linear Momentum

p = mv




The product of mass and velocity.




Measured in kgms^-1.

Impulse

Impulse = FΔt = mΔv




The change in momentum.




Measured in Ns.

Newton's Second Law

F = ma = Δp / Δt




The rate of change of momentum of an object is proportional to the applied force and takes place in the direction in which the force acts.

Newton's Third Law

When a particle A exerts a force on another particle B, B simultaneously exerts a force on A which is equal and opposite in magnitude.

Law of Conservation of Momentum

The momentum of an isolated system remains constant when no external forces are acting upon it.

Work

Work is done when a force moves an object in the directions of the force.




W = Fscos(theta)

Joule

An SI unit of energy.




1J = 1Nm

Work done by a non-constant force

Work is done in the area under the force-distance graph.




Eg, Hooke's Law ( W = 0.5kx^2)

Energy

The ability to do work.

Kinetic Energy

Energy of an objects as a result of its motion.




E = 0.5mv^2 = p^2 / 2m

Gravitational Potential Energy

Energy an object has as a result of its position in a gravitational field.




E = mgΔh

Principle of Conservation of Energy

Energy is never created or destroyed, it just changes from one form to another.

Elastic Collisions

KE is conserved in these collisions.

Inelastic Collisions

KE is not conserved in these collisions.




If objects stick together, the collision is perfectly inelastic.

Explosive Collisions

KE is increased in this collision.

Power

P = Fv




The rate of doing work.




In W (or Js^-1)

Efficiency

Fraction of energy which is usefully transferred.




Useful work done / Total work done

Centripetal Acceleration

a = v^2 / r




The acceleration of a body moving in a circle. Directed towards the centre of a circle. A body with a centripetal acceleration must be under the influence of a centripetal force.

Centripetal Force

F = mv^2 / r