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167 Cards in this Set

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Extreme Nationalism, State supremacy, one party rule, retention of private property
Want a planned economy with private ownership of the means of production
Philosophy that emphasizes the importance of the nation or an ethnic group and the supreme authority of the leader.
Want a planned economy with public ownership of the means of production
Want to maintain the class system with an authoritarian government
Want to do away with the class system with an authoritarian government.
Believed workers of all countries should unite in a class struggle
Fascists believed the state should have an ______ leader
Both Fascists and Communists believe in
Dictatorial one-party rule
Under Fascism and Communism opposition was _____-
A one-party dictatorship attempts to control every aspect of citizens' lives.
totalitarian state
Under Joseph Stalin, the Soviet Union developed into a _________.
totalitarian state
In the Soviet Union the government made most economic decisions.
command economy
Stalin wanted all peasants to farm on state owned farms.
Because farmers resisted collectivization Stalin seized all their grain and left peasants to starve.
Terror Famine
Fearing rival party leaders were plotting against him Stalin launched the _________.
Great Purge
Resulted in the killing or imprisonment of at least four million people in the Soviet Union.
Great Purge
Joseph Stalin dominated the Soviet Union by using tactics of __________.
terror and purges
Stalin attempted to modernized agriculture in the Soviet Union through _____.
In order to modernize agriculture in the Soviety Union, Joseph Stalin combined small family farms into ___________ run by the state.
collective farms
Leader of the Soviet Union during World War II.
Joseph Stalin
Historical event that contributed to the rise of fascism in both Italy and Germany, and the rise of totalitarianism in the Soviet Union.
World War I
First European country to become fascist.
Fascist Party leader who became dictator of Italy.
Benito Mussolini
Feared high inflation and or high unemployment might lead to a communist revolution
middle and upper class
Have the most to lose in a communist revolution
middle and upper class
Middle and upper classes supported Mussolini because they feared a ______-
communist revolution
Won support in Italy by attacking communists
Benito Mussolini
Nickname for Mussolini's private troops he used to take power in Italy
Black shirts
Fascist gang in Italy.
He used gangs of Fascist thugs to terrorize his opponents in Italy.
Benito Mussolini
Mussolini and his Black shirts marched on Rome in _______ (year)
When Mussolini marched on Rome the Italian King asked him to form a government as ______.
Prime Minister
After Mussolini was named Prime Minister he used secret police and propaganda to ______-
eliminate all opposition
During the 1930s Italy, Germany, and Japan all sought to solve their nations problems through ______.
Both Mussolini and Hitler saw expansion of their territory as a way to increase ______.
national pride
Did not completely destroy Germany but created a motive for revenge.
Versailles Treaty
Germany's solution to war reparations following WWI.
Printing money
Just printing money resulted in extremely high _______.
Economic problem in Germany from 1918-23.
Democratic Government set up in Germany after WWI.
Weimar Republic
Became a scapegoat for Germany's problems after WWI.
Weimar Republic
Germans blamed the Weimar Republic for their __________.
defeat in World War I
Was doomed to failure by the harshness of the Versailles Treaty.
Weimar Republic
When difficulties arise people are often willing to sacrifice democracy in exchange for _________.
strong leadership
By the autumn of 1923 it was worthless
German Mark (unit of currency)
Enabled Germany to recover from its tremendous inflation
Dawes Plan
$200 million loan from American banks to stabilize German economy.
Dawes Plan
National Socialist German Worker's Party
Became the fuehrer (leader) of the Nazi Party.
Adolf Hitler
Attempted a coup in Munich in 1923
Adolf Hitler
After the attempted coup in 1923 Hitler was
While in prison Hitler wrote ______-
Mein Kampf
Title of Hitler's autobiography.
Mein Kampf
Set forth Hitler's objectives for Germany
Mein Kampf
Nazism was an extreme form of _____.
Lost popularity during the prosperity of the 1920s
Results in both Communists and Nazis gaining popularity in the 1930s
Great Depression
Because of the depression Germans began to feel they had to choose between _______
Communism and Nazism
Nazi private army
Storm Troopers
Engaged in terrorism to help the Nazis come to power
Storm Troopers
Nickname for the Nazi Storm Troopers
Brown Shirts
German initials for Storm Troopers
Industrialists, upper class and the middle class backed Hitler because they feared they might lose everything to a ______
communist revolution
Ruling body under the Weimar Republic.
In 1933 President Hindenburg named Hitler
As Chancellor Hitler called for new______
Reichstag elections
Enabled the Nazis and their allies to win a majority of seats in the Reichstag.
Reichstag Fire
The Nazis blamed the Reichstag fire on the _____
After gaining a two-third majority the Nazi's passed the ______-
Enabling Act
The Enabling Act made Hitler the ______
Dictator of Germany
The Axis Powers were named for the "axis" between _______.
Berlin and Rome
During the 1930s, Hitler, Mussolini, and the military leaders of Japan began _______.
invading neighboring lands
In 1936 Italy conquered
Keeping the peace by giving into an aggressor's demands.
When Hitler first began to violate the Treaty of Versailles, Britain and France followed a policy of _______.
Policy followed by Britain and France in the 1930s in an attempt to prevent war by giving into some of Germany's demands.
Hitler began to violate it provisions step by step.
Versailles Treaty
First violation of the Versailles Treaty.
German Rearmament
After Hitler rearmed his second violation of the Versailles Treaty was to occupy the demilitarized zone of the _______.
Hitler annexed Austria with _______.
no resistance
Britain & France give up the Sudetenland in Czechoslovakia to maintain peace.
Munich Pact
Germany, Italy, and Japan (1936)
Axis Powers
Led revolt against the elected government in Spain.
Francisco Franco
Used German and Italian troops against Spain's Republican army.
Francisco Franco
During Spain's civil war western democracies _____.
remained neutral
The government established by Franco in Spain was _______.
Spanish military dictator.
Francisco Franco
British Prime Minister famous for appeasement.
Neville Chamberlain
British Prime Minister who signed a peace accord in Munich.
Neville Chamberlain
Hitler violated the Munich Pact by taking ____.
all of Czechoslovakia
Government that exerts total control over a nation.
Germany and Italy, later joined by Japan.
Axis Powers
The term Hitler used for more living space for Germans.
Although Communists and Fascists were traditionally enemies, in 1939 Hitler made a nonaggression pact with _____.
Joseph Stalin
After Hitler had invaded Czechoslovakia and made a pact with Stalin, he invaded ____.
World War II started when Germany _____.
invaded Poland
Date of the beginning of World War II.
German "lightning war"
Quick surprise strikes by tanks supported by airplanes.
Germany's tactic of striking quickly and deeply into enemy territory.
When invading Poland Hitler used the _____.
After Hitler invaded Poland, Britain and France __________.
declared war on Germany
Followed Britain and France declaring war on Germany.
Phony War
No fighting on land between the Allies and Germany.
Phony War
Those who fought against the Axis Powers.
Hitler's armies simply went around it from the North.
Maginot Line
Hitler used the Blitzkrieg to overrun this country in about a month in 1940.
British rescued 300,000 troops out of France at this port.
In 1940, one of the greatest rescues in the history of warfare occurred at _______.
Northern France was occupied by _____.
In Southern France the Germans set up a puppet government at _____.
Policy followed by the Vichy government of France after Hitler conquered France.
Close cooperation
French government in exile in London.
Free France
Movement backed by the Free French.
French underground movement to oppose the Germans.
By 1940 Germany had gained control of most of __________.
Western Europe
Succeeded Neville Chamberlain as Britain's Prime Minister.
Winston Churchill
Hitler wanted to crush this country's air force to prepare to invade it.
The British RAF defeated the German Luftwaffe.
Battle of Britain
Battle in which Hitler launched the greatest air assault the world had yet seen.
Battle of Britain
New technology used by Britain in the Battle of Britain.
German Air Force.
Royal Air Force
Commander of the Luftwaffe
Herman Goering
Prevented a German invasion of Britain.
Battle of Britain
Great Britain held out against the German attack at the Battle of _____.
He inspired the British people to resist the German invasion.
Winston Churchill
When Hitler decided Germany needed more lebensraum he looked to the _____.
Head of the Soviet Union during WWII.
Joseph Stalin
After Hitler was unable to invade Britain he broke his non-aggression pact and invaded ____.
the Soviet Union
Ripped through the Soviet Union at first.
The group of countries who opposed the Axis Powers.
In 1853 he sailed into Tokyo Bay and forced helped force the Japanese to open trade with foreigners.
Matthew Perry
By the beginning of World War I it had become the strongest East Asian nation.
The Japanese Army acted on its own to overrun the whole of Manchuria.
Manchurian Incident
In 1932, Manchuria was taken over by the _____.
Japanese military
The Manchurian Incident greatly increased ITS power over the Japanese government.
Japanese military
Puppet state after Manchuria was concquered by Japan.
Date of the Manchurian Incident.
In July of 1937, Japan resumed its invasion of ______.
Japanese soldiers brutalized or killed at least 100,000 civilians women or children in the former capital of China.
"Rape of Nanjing"
Britain sent a steady streamof supplies to the Chinese in their war with Japan over the _____.
Burma Road
A 700-mile-long highway linking Burma (present day Myanmar) to China.
Burma Road
Two enemy leaders in China who united to fight the Japanese.
Jiang Jieshi & Mao Zedong
Was created by Japan because it wanted the region's natural resources for its war against China.
Greater East Asia-Co-Prosperity Sphere
In September 1940, Japan allied itself with the _____.
Axis Powers
Avoiding political ties to other countries.
After World War I Americans became ____.
U.S. laws designed to keep the nation out of future wars.
Neutrality Acts
Group of American isolationists
America First Committee
Policy that required countries at war to pay casy for all nonmilitary goods and provide transport.
cash and carry
The America First Committee wanted to block any further ________.
aid to Britain
During the 1930s, the U.S. focused largely on ______.
domestic affairs
Were passed by congress and designed to limit international involvement.
Neutrality Acts
A group of isolationists that included Charles Lindbergh formed the ______.
America First Committee
Authorized the President to aid any nation whose defense was seen as vital to American security.
Lend-Lease Act
Act authorizing the President to aid any nation's whose defense he felt was vital to American security.
Lend-Lease Act
Part of American policy during the early years of WWII was to remain neutral while making war supplies _______.
available to the Allies
During the early years of WWII, even while supllying weapons to Britain and France the U.S. attempted to remain ______.
After Japanese forces took complete control of French Indochina FDR froze Japanese ______.
financial assets in the U.S.
After their assets were frozen in the U.S. the Japanese looked to the _______.
Dutch East Indies for oil
Militant Japanese general became prime minister in October of 1941.
Tojo Hideki
Japanese leaders believed they could cripple IT at Pearl Harbor.
American naval fleet
Prompted the U.S. to enter the war in 1941.
Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor
Shortly after Congress passed a war declaration on Japan, __________.
Germany and Italy declared war on the U.S.