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33 Cards in this Set

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Plasma Hemoglobin as a marker of hemolysis, or cell death
Normally, hemoglobin is found on the inside of erythrocytes in the blood and carry oxygen/carbon dioxide. When erythrocytes lyse, or break, they would be expected to release hemoglobin into the blood.
How can a bacterium that has certain genes give rise to a daughter cell that lacks these genes?
copies of the plasmid containing the genes were not equally distributed to the new daughter cells.
Bacterial conjugation is similar to the sexual reproduction of eukaryotic organisms in that it:
results in genetic recombination
Two Primary factors that determine blood pressure:
Cardiac Output & Resistance to blood flow
Most fungal spores are:
metabolically inactive and haplpoid
Inflation of the lungs in mammals is accomplished by:
negative pressure pumping action
An organism is likely to be a bacterium rather than a virus if it:
reproduces via fission
Would an increase in the level of plasma aldosterone be expected to follow ingestion of excessive quantities of NaCl?
No; aldosterone causes Na+ reabsorption by kidney tubules.
The sequence of events in the human menstrual cycle involves close interaction among which organs?
A colony of smooth strain bacteria is grown on a culture containing an experimental drug that cleaves nucleic acid base sequences wherever adenine is paired with uracil. Which of the following processes will be directly affected?

I. Transcription
II. Translation
III. Transformation
I and II only. Transcription and translation.
Which of the following conditions increases affinity of hemoglobin for oxygen?

I. Increased H+ concentration in the blood
II. Increased CO2 concentration in the blood
III. Increased O2 concentration in the alveolar capillaries
III only. Increased O2 concentration in the alveolar capillaries.
Glucagon release is stimulated by excess amino acids in the blood. This leads to:
increased gluconeogenesis
The breakdown of body fat reserves in female athletes would involve which of the following metabolic pathways?
Beta Oxidation
The role played by tropomyosin in skeletal muscle contraction is most similar to that of:
a repressor
Oral contraceptives contain a combination of synthetic estrogens and progestins. By which of the following methods do oral contraceptives suppress ovulation?
The presence of high levels of estrogen and progesterone inhibit secretion of gonadotopin-releasing hormones, thereby inhibiting leteinizing hormone and follicle stimulating hormone.
All of the following are true of RBCs EXCEPT:

A.The cannot synthesize ATP
B. They are incapable of cell division
C. they do not have mitochondria
D.They are derived from the same original type of cells as white blood cells.
A. They cannot synthesize ATP.
During periods of starvation, the human body can generate glucose from:
Glycogen, the glycerol potion of triacylglycerol, and amino acids.
Which of the following best explains why, after several weeks of starvation, acetyl CoA is used almost exclusively to produce ketone bodies?
Gluconeogenesis depletes the supply of oxaloacetate, which is essential for the entry of acetyl CoA into the Krebs Cycle.
Why does the brain use glucose rather than fatty acids as its major metabolic fuel during the early stages of starvation?
Glucose can cross the blood-brain barrier via specific carrier molecules, while fatty acids cannot.
Parathyroid hormone, which is an antagonist, stimulates activity in:
osteoclasts, which dissolve bone.
Which of the following symptoms would be present in a patient with Addison's disease, which is the result of adrenocortical deficiency?
Low blood pressure and high K+ in the extracellular fluid.
The passages of the respiratory tract which do not participate in gas exchange are called anatomical dead space. Compared to air in the alveoli, air in the anatomical dead space will have:
lower Pco2 and higher Po2
A patent foramen ovale occurs when an infant's foramen ovale does not close completely at birth. Based on the information presented in the passage, this can lead to:
hypoxic hypoxia because much of the blood does not reach the lungs to be oxygenated leading to low Po2.
During labor, fetal heart rate tracings are monitored for drops in fetal heart rate termed decelerations. A variable deceleration is caused by compression of the umbilical cord. The fetal heart rate initially increases as the flimsy umbilical vein is compressed and then decreases as the umbilical arteries are compressed. How can this be explained?
Compression of the umbilical vein decreases fetal blood volume while compression of the umbilical artery increases fetal blood volume.
Which of the following regarding somatostatin is true?
I. is increased by high blood glucose levels
II. decreases insulin secretion
III. decreases glucagon secretion
Which of the following will reduce the amount of filtrate that is entering the Bowman's capsule from the glomerular capillaries?
increased plasma protein concentration
Which of the following will favor the movement of water, ions, and glucose from the intercellular space of the proximal tubule into the peritubular capillaries?
Low capillary hydrostatic and high capillary osmotic pressures
DNA with which of the following characteristics would be most easily denatured?
Complementary strands which have a higher A-T content than G-C content
The main difference between ssDNA and dsDNA is that:
dsDNA has strands oriented in an antiparallel fashion, while ssDNA does not.
What is the mechanism of action of tropomyosin?
Calcium binds to troponin molecules to cause the tropomyosin to shift and expose the myosin-binding sites
If an individual voluntarily elevates ventilation rate by increasing the rate and depth of breathing, then which of the following compensatory mechanisms would be helpful for maintaining plasma pH?
Decreased absorption of HCO3-
What would be the effect of a drug that selectively inhibits carbonic anhydrase in the lumen of the tubule without affecting carbonic anhydrase elsewhere?
Both the amount of H+ secreted and the amount of HCO3- reabsorbed will be decreased.
Patent ductus arteriosus is a condition that results from a failure of the ductus arteriosus to close completely after birth. Patent ductus arteriosus would result in blood flow from the:
aorta to the pulmonary artery