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33 Cards in this Set

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Physical quantities that have both magnitude and direction


Quantities without direction.

Scalar quantities may be a magnitude of vectors.

How is vector subtraction accomplished?

By changing the direction of the subtracted vector and then following the procedures for vector addition.

How is vector addition accomplished?

Using tip to tail method or by breaking a vector into its components and using Pythagorean Theorem.

Dot product

The product of the vectors’ magnitudes and the cosine of the angle between them.

Cross Product

The product of the vectors’ magnitudes and the sine of the angle between them.


The vector representation of a change in position.


Scalar quantity that reflects the path traveled


The vector representation of the change in displacement with respect to time

Average velocity

Total displacement divided by total time.

Average speed

The total distance traveled divided by the total time

Instantaneous velocity

Limit of the change in displacement over time as the change in time approaches zero.

Instantaneous speed

The magnitude of the instantaneous velocity vector.


Any push or pool that has the potential to result in acceleration.


The attractive force between two objects as a result of their masses.


A force that opposes motion as a function of electrostatic interactions at the surface between two objects.

Static friction

Exists between two objects that are not in motion relative to each other.

Kinetic friction

Exist between two objects that are in motion relative to each other.

Coefficient of friction

Depends on two materials in contact. The coefficient of static friction is always higher than the coefficient of kinetic friction.


A measure of inertia of an object.


The force experienced by a given mass due to the gravitational attraction to earth.


The vector representation of the change in velocity over time.

The Law of Inertia

Newton’s 1st Law- an object will remain at rest or move with a constant velocity if there is no net force on it.

Newton’s Second Law

Any acceleration is the result of the sum of the forces acting upon the object and its mass.

Newton’s Third Law

Any two objects interacting with one another experience equal and opposite forces as a result of the interaction.

Linear motion

Includes free fall and motion in which the velocity and acceleration vectors are parallel or anti parallel.

Projectile motion

Contains both an x- and y- component. Assuming negligible air resistance, the only force acting on the object is gravity.

Inclined planes

An example of two-dimensional movement. Easiest to consider the dimensions as being parallel and perpendicular to the surface of the plane.

Circular motion

Has radial and tangential dimensions. In uniform circular motion,the only force is the centripetal force.

Free body diagrams

Representations of the forces acting on an object.

Useful for equilibrium and dynamics problems.

Rotational equilibrium

Occurs in the absence of any net torques acting on an object.

An object in rotational equilibrium has a constant angular velocity.


Find direction once we have the magnitude x and y

SI unit for force

Newton kg•m over ssquared