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35 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Define communication:
the art of transmitting information, ideas, and attitudes from one person to another
Define Mass communication:
the art of transmitting information attitudes and ideas to reach a sizable and diversified audience through the use of the media
What are the 4 limitations of the communications process?
Channel Noise, Semantic Noise, Stored Experience, Dissonance
What is channel noise?
distractions between communicator and audience
How do you overcome channel noise>
by using attention-getting devices and through redundancy
What is semantic noise?
hearing a message but misunderstanding it
How do you overcome semantic noise?
try to select words and terms within the audience's frame of reference?
What is stored experience?
the experiences we have had over our lifetimes that cause us to have certain beliefs and values. It is a problem because someone might simply reject a message completely because it goes against his or her belief system.
How do you overcome stored experience?
careful research of the audience
What is dissonance?
inconsistent actions that are contrary to the way a person or a group normally behaves`
How do you overcome dissonance?
Every now and then we do something or say something that is totally inconsistent with what we normally do. There is NO way for a communicator to overcome this problem.
What are the 4 aspects of the communication process?
communicator, message, audience, channel
Define Communicator:
person sending the message
define message
the transmitted information
define Channel
how the information is transmitted
Define audience
Who the message goes to
How does the communicator determine effectiveness?
what is feedback, and what are 3 types?
feedback is a means of measurement, such as audience reaction, sales, and polling
What are the 3 main types of mass media? (channel)
printed word and picture (newspaper, magazine, books, pamphlets), sound (radio, news), Sight and sound (TV, films, internet)
What are the 4 parts of the expanded communication model?
Source, Communicator, Editing, Audience
What are the four theories of press freedom?
SLAM: Social Responsibility, Libertarian, Authoritarian, Marxist
What is the Authoritarian theory?
From the time of Henry VIII and the Reformation, all things printed were ordered by policies of government.
What is the Libertarian theory?
the press was to seek the truth "unfettered" by political authority.
What is the Marxist theory?
All media are socialized . The state owns, directs, and operates the mass media for "the advancement of the existing order."
What is the Social Responsibility theory?
communicators who enjoy a constitutional freedom, have certain obligations to society.
How do political candidates reach the public?
Through paid advertising that they control, and media coverage which hopefully they do not control.
What is the watchdog concept?
the news media has a vital role to play in a democracy - searching out fraud and corruption at all levels
How has media impacted our economic fabric? 2 things
in a free enterprise system, you must advertise to be successful, and media coverage of economic news also has an impact on our economy
What is the marketplace concept?
the media is a "marketplace" of ideas and information. The aims and policies of government are discussed extensively by opposition political leaders, commentators, editors, and the public.
What is the gatekeeper function?
they must decide whether or not to use the item and what emphasis to give to it.
How has media changed the social structure? (3 things)
the way people behave (nation of imitators), great debate started by coverage of protest and violence, social change has happened in civil rights and civil liberties.
What is freedom of the press?
You can write or say anything you want, contrary to popular belief, however once you say it if it is libel or slander you can be taken to court.
What is Near v. Minnesota?
it is unconstitutional to stop stop someone from printing something. ties together the 1st and 14th ammendment
What is Esquire v. U.S.?
Barbershop publication for men, mailing permit was retracted. Federal employee does not have the power to judge it as being obscene and stop printing, it can only be brought to court with those accusations.
What is the Pentagon Papers Case?
Top secret documents were stolen, restraining order was given to the newspapers, but due to the fact that the government had failed to show that national security was being endangered by the further publication of these parers, it was allowed to be printed.