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37 Cards in this Set

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  • Back

Define genetic engineering

The general name for techniques involving changing genes or transferring them from one species to another

Define cloning

a process which gives rise to identical copies. cloning can be of DNA sequences, genes, cells or whole organisms

Define restriction enzyme

ezymes used to cut DNA into different segments

Define re-combinant DNA

DNA formed by joining segments of DNA from different species

Define DNA polymerase

The enzyme that catalyses the reaction of DNA replication

Define polymerase chain reaction

a reaction in which millions of copies of the DNA can be made in a short period of time

Define DNA probe

a short section of labelled DNA or RNA which is complementary to the base sequence of a part of a gene and can be used to locate it in a cell

Define gene mapping

a process invloved in locating genes to the particular positions on chromosomes

Define genome

the total set of genes for an organism

Define ligase enzyme

enzymes involved in rejoining the strands of DNA

Define plasmid

A separate, circular piece of DNA in bacteria, capable of independent replication, that can be transferred between individuals.

Define microparticle gun

A device used to deliver foreign DNA into plant cells

Define viral vector

a virus that can be used in genetic manipulation to transfer desired genes into a host organism

Define transgenic

an organism which has a transferred gene incorporated into the chromosomes of its cells

Where are plasmids important?

plasmids are important in the transfer of genetic information in the process of genetic engineering

How has genetic engineering or modification been made possible?

by the isolation and manipulation of genes extracted from the DNA of species Wh

What does genetic engineering involve?

genetic engineering involves taking genes from one organism and transferring them to another species or putting the back into the original organism in an altered fashion,

What are some uses for genetic engineering?

- producing desired proteins like insulin or vaccines

- improving plants

- improving animals

What are examples of plant improvements using genetic engineering?

- making pest-resistant cotton

- plants with increased viral resistance

- making plants more nutritious

What are the main processes in genetically engineering an organism?

1. finding gene of interest

2. using enzymes to isolate gene

3. sequencing gene to determine its structure

4. inserting gene into cells of a target organism

5. growing the transformed cells into a complete organism

How do gene probes bind?

in a complementary manny to the gene of interest

How many nucleotides do most restriction enzymes recognise?

4-8 nucleotides

How do restrictiion enzymes work?

they work by making incisions through the sugar-phosphate backbone

what is electroporation?

is an electrical pulse method in which DNA can be delivered directly into cells

What are the techniques used for transferring genes between plants?

1. using bacterium

2. using electroporation

2. using a microparticle gene gun

What is a virus?

a particle that consists of genetic material either DNA or RNA combined with protein

when do virus particles produce?

only in the cells of the host organism that they inflict

how do scientists use viral particles as vectors to transmit genetic information?

by attaching a required gene to the genome of the virus and the engineering the virus to infect particular tissues

what are some organisms created through genetic manipulation?

- whole individuals such as Dolly the Finn Dorset sheep

- transgenic organisms for improved meat production

- insect-resistant plants by transferring genes that confer resistance

- new plants

- re-creating extinct species

What are some substances created through genetic manipulation?

- insulin, for human hormones

- vaccines for hepatitis and other diseases

- growth hormones

- enzymes used in laundry detergents

- a variety of useful drugs

What are some steps for producing useful protein like insulin?

- insulin producing gene is identified and removed form human chromosome

- gene is inserted into E.coli plasmid

- recombinant DNA is placed back into the E.coli

- cloning of re-combinant bacteria produces many cells with the human insulin gene

by using specific controls, E.coli can make human insulin protein that can be collected and purified

Explain the use of bacterium to transfer genes between plants

the bacterium used naturally injects DNA into plant chromosomes. the disease inducing genes of the bacteria has been removed, enabling it to transfer the required gene into a specific plant cell

What can the micro-particle gun be used for?

The micro-particle gun can be used to fire up the DNA or insert molecules like gold or tungsten into the cells

how do you transfer genes into animals.

Inject the DNA directly into the pro-nucleus of the fertilised egg using a fine glass needle, it is then transplanted back into a pregnant animal to develop in the normal fashion

what is gene therapy?

it is a process in which a person suffering from a disease has a replacement gene transferred into the cells.

what is the technique for transferring genes into animals cells called?


animals created with micro-injected genes are called what?

transgenic animals