Genetic Engineering In Medicine

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Genetic engineering, also called genetic modification is the direct manipulation of an organism’s genome using biotechnology. It is a set of technologies used to change the genetic makeup of cells, including the transfer of genes within and across species boundaries to produce improved or novel organisms. New DNA may be inserted in the host genome by first isolating and copying the genetic material of interest using molecular cloning methods to generate a DNA sequence, or by synthesizing the DNA, and then inserting this construct into the host organism. Genetic engineering has applications in medicine, research, industry and agriculture and can be used on a wide range of plants, animals and microorganisms. The following are the applications …show more content…
They can be found both in embryos and adults. Scientists take the stem cells, put in healthy, normal DNA and then put them into patients to replace their cells that have defective DNA. One other application of genetic engineering in medicine is gene therapy. Gene therapy is the genetic engineering of humans, generally by replacing defective genes with effective ones. This can occur in somatic tissue or germline tissue. Somatic gene therapy has been studied in clinical research in several diseases, including chronic lymphocytic leukemia. With regard to germline gene therapy, the scientific community has been opposed to attempts to alter genes in humans in inheritable ways using biotechnology since the technology was first introduced, and the caution has continued as the technology has progressed. Recombinant DNA technology is also used in the prenatal diagnosis of inherited diseases. Restriction enzymes are used to cut the DNA of parents who may carry a gene for a congenital disorder. These fragments are compared with DNA from the fetus. In many situations the disease status of the fetus can be …show more content…
Nonetheless members of the public are much less likely than scientists to perceive genetically modified foods as safe. The legal and regulatory status of genetically modified foods varies by country, with some nations banning or restricting them, and other permitting them with widely differing degrees of regulation. Efforts are being made to improve several agricultural crops using various techniques of genetic engineering which include: ü Transfer of nitrogen fixing genes from leguminous plants into cereals. ü Transfer of resistance against pathogens and pests from wild plants to crop plants. ü Improvement in quality and quantity of seed proteins. ü Transfer of genes for animal proteins to crop plants. ü Elimination of unwanted genes for susceptibility to different diseases. ü Improvement of photosynthetic efficiency of reassembling nuclear and chloroplast genes and by the possible conversion of C3plants into C4

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