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70 Cards in this Set

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What was different in the construction of Khufu’s pyramid from previous pyramids? How did the builders stabilize the base for Khufu’s pyramid? What subsidiary buildings and features are associated with Khufu’s pyramid? How many Queen’s Pyramids are located nearby? Why are some of the boats disassembled inside the boat pits surrounding Khufu’s pyramids?
-Khufu’s Pyramid was much larger and required bigger stones.
-The builder’s stabilized the structure by carving the base out of the bedrock
-Subsidiary buildings: Mortuary complex, boat pits, 3 queen’s pyramids, cult pyramid to SE rather than SW, valley temple and causeway poorly known
-The reason that some of the boat pits were disassembled was to prevent destruction.
Who was Djedefre and where did he build his pyramid complex?
-Djedefre was Khufu’s immediate heir who built his complex at Abu Rawash
What evidence indicates that Khafre was
less interested in the interior of the pyramid and more focused on the exterior and subsidiary
-Lack of internal extravagance and lots of subsidiary buildings indicates that he wanted to show more focus on external structures.
What other subsidiary buildings did Khafre add to his mortuary complex?
Other subsidiary buildings: Mortuary temple with 5 standard elements, valley temple, sphinx and sphinx complex
Who constructed the Dream Stela between the Sphinx’s forepaws and why?
-Dream Stela was built by Thutmose IV and it was built to signify the pharaoh’s divine legitimacy to the pharaohship.
How does Menkaure’s pyramid at Giza differ from Khufu’s and Khafre’s?
-Menkaure’s pyramid is much smaller in size than his predecessors. It has evidence of granite casing at the base with the rest covered in tura limestone. The interior walls were the first decorated by any pharaoh since Djoser. It was carved from bedrock but lined in granite.
Why might Menkaure’s pyramid be smaller than his predecessor’s pyramids?
-Reasons behind the size could include: larger focus on quality rather than quality. Also, it took a long time to build larger pyramids and he may not have had the time given the granite he wanted came from far away.
What is unique about Menkaure’s sarcophagus? What else is different about the pyramid interior compared to the others at Giza? How was his mortuary complex finished after his death?
- Menakure’s sarcophagus is unique because it was made out of basalt and was heavily decorated
-Menkaure’s pyramid was unique because it was made out of granite and had a palace-facade motif engraved in it.
-Other differences in the interior were: internal structure has a lot of turns compared to the more linear internal structure of his father and grandfather. Also his internal structure had chamber with 6 niches that were for storage.
-His mortuary complex was finished in mudbrick by his successor Shepsekhaf
Where did Menkaure’s successor, Shepsekaf, build his burial complex? What was different about his burial complex from previous kings’ complexes?
-His complex was built at S. Sakkara.
-He built his complex out of mudbrick instead of full limestone like his dynasty IV predecessors. He also used red granite for the bottom casing of his tomb.
In what sort of complex was Shepsekaf’s successor, Queen Khentkawes I (last pharaoh of Dynasty 4), buried? Why might she have chosen to be buried at Giza?
-Khentkawes I was buried in a mudbrick tomb with a carved bedrock base. She may have been chosen to be buried at Giza due to her connection to Shepsekhaf and the importance of Giza as a “grand” place of burials.
When does the first evidence of evisceration of a body occur and in which royal burial(s)? What is a canopic chest? Which organs were removed from the body?
-First evidence of evisceration is in Hetepheres burial. This evidence is based on the canopic jars which held the parts of the body (organs: stomach, lungs, intestines, liver). The purpose for eviscerating the body is to emphasize the importance of preserving the body for the afterlife.
What is the evidence for planning and construction of the Giza necropolis? What is significant about the arrangement of the pyramids at Giza?
-Evidence for the construction of the Giza necropolis tells us that many people ~20,000 workers came from all over the Nile Valley to help in it’s construction.
-There is no significant arrangement of the pyramids and their placement has nothing to do with Orion’s belt as stated by Bauval and Gilbert (1994). Their SE corners are all linear though, yet that significance is noted noted.
Which individuals were buried in the rows of tombs and mastabas (Eastern and Western Cemeteries) next to Khufu’s pyramid?
- In the east and west cemeteries, royal officials and family members (from Dyn. 4-6) had rock cut and mastaba tombs.
How did the ancient Egyptians construct the pyramids? What kinds of tools and methods did they use? How did they acquire and transport the stone for the pyramids?
-The egyptians constructed the pyramids by cutting limestone blocks from a quarry (starting with the top and sides and then breaking them off at the bottom) and transporting them with ropes and wood, where they would pull the blocks over the wood so it rolled. Once at the pyramid there were ramps constructed around the pyramid to access the layer that was being worked on.
Based on your reading, lectures, and class video, discuss the organization of the construction gangs and the information about the length of time it took to build the largest pyramids. How many laborers were needed and how were they supported/supplied while undertaking this work?
-The people who built these pyramids were not slaves, but regular Egyptians from around the Nile Valley. Social organization of these people was very organized and they were treated quite nicely with evidence of placed bones, medicine, varieties of food, etc..
-It took ~20,000 people around 20 years to complete the structures.
What do the workers’ burial remains suggests about the inhabitants of the village? What do the burial remains suggest about the village’s social and economic organization? How do the workers’ tombs compare to those of the elite? Do the workers’ skeletons show the same injuries and diseases as those of the elite?
-Burial remains of around 600 discovered workers showed the social organization of the worker’s village with overseers having more extravagant rock cut tombs. also, many of the workers suffered from lumbar osteoarthritis and had many osteophytes indicating heavy labor. This was a thriving social community with equal numbers of men and women (and many families). Varieties of food like fish and cattle were found. the diversity in burial remains suggest that the social organization had some variation as with any major project today. Typically the laborers had more signs of stress on their skeletal structures than those of the “elite”. Overall, the diet and economy of this small city was healthy, well- balanced and organized.
How do Dynasty 5 and 6 pyramid complexes differ from the Dynasty 4 complexes at Giza?
-Pyramid complexes in the 5th and 6th dynasties differ from Dyn. 4 complexes by: location (Sakkara, Abusir, Abu Ghurob), size (they are much smaller).
What is a Sun Temple and why did Userkaf build his (the first) at Abu Ghurab (just north of Abusir)? What does the addition of Sun Temples in Dynasty 5 suggest about changes in Egyptian religion?
-Pyramid complexes in the 5th and 6th dynasties differ from Dyn. 4 complexes by: location (Sakkara, Abusir, Abu Ghurob), size (they are much smaller).
-A Sun Temple is an hommage to the pharaoh’s cult (sun god Re). This indicated a dramatic religious shift from the previous cult to the new cult of the sun god Re.
What are the main architectural elements of a Sun Temple?
-The main architectural elements of a sun temple are: valley temple, causeway and main temple on which an obelisk usually sat. Here commoners could visit the cult “shrine” to pay hommage to the sun god Re and the Pharaoh who built it.
. How do the 5th Dynasty pyramids at Abusir suggest a reversion back to older methods of pyramid construction?
-5th dynasty pyramids at Abusir show us a reversion back to older methods of pyramid construction like that of Dyn. 3 where the structure was built in vertical steps rather than horizontal steps of true pyramids. Other examples would be Khentkawes II and Neferirkare who’s pyramids started as stepped pyramids/ mastabas and were eventually finished as true pyramids or left unfinished. Neferefre also had plaster walls in his mortuary complex which harks back to Dyn. 1
What do these pyramids suggest about the increasing attention to subsidiary buildings rather than to the king’s pyramid?
-Subsidiary buildings seemed to garner more attention as seen with the sun temples of Userkaf and Niuserre. Also the mortuary complexes began to show extravagant decoration with hypostyle halls and beautiful reliefs
How were the decorative features of the royal complexes elaborated upon in Dynasty 5 (e.g., reliefs, painted walls)? Which pharaoh’s burial chamber includes the earliest Pyramid Texts? In what other ways were his and subsequent kings’ burial chambers decorated?
-The pyramid of Wenis (Unas) in the 5th Dyn. at Sakkara had the earliest pyramid texts with over 200 spells.
-Wenis and subsequent pharaoh’s burial chamber’s were decorated very nicely, some of which had pyramid texts.
Explain how royal pyramid complexes became standardized in size and composition
during Dynasty 6. What are the primary elements of the standardized complex?
-In Dyn. 6 we don’t really see a shift into anything new in terms of pyramid complexes but we do see a standardized size of the pyramids. All of them had a base measurement of 78.75 meters squared, a height of 52 meters and an angle of 53.7 degrees.
-The primary elements of a pyramid complex are: mortuary, temple, causeway, valley temple.,enclosure wall and cult pyramid.
How does the burial treatment of queens change in Dynasty 6? What evidence suggests that queen’s may have become more powerful?
-Burial treatment changes for queens in Dyn. 6 because they are becoming more important. They are getting their own pyramids with mortuary temples and such. As with Pepi I and one of his 6 wives (Ankhesenpepi II) which has the first known use of pyramid texts outside a kings pyramid. Since Pepi II came to rule at a young age, Ankhesenpepi II probably ruled Egypt for a long time.
Which Old Kingdom queens may have ruled on their own or as co-regents for their young sons? Why is the queen mother important?
-Ankhesenpepi for Pepi II, Khentkawes (Shepsekhaf/Userkhaf)
- Queen mothers were important because they provided sons to the king meaning that they had an heir to the throne. Queens often acted as regents to the king if they died and the children were to young to rule (as in Ankhesenpepi II, khentkawes)
How did the orientation (i.e., the direction that the entrance, mortuary temple, etc., faced) change over this time?
-In Dyn. 3, as seen with Djoser’s pyramid, we have the entrance and mortuary temple on the north side with the serdab on the SE corner. Starting with Sneferu and his sons (Dyn. 4) we see the entrance to pyramids on the north face, mortuary temples and queens pyramids are on the east and the cult pyramid is on the west. In Dyn. 5, as with Userkaf and Sahure, we see mortuary temples and subsidiary pyramids on the SE corner. Into Dyn. 6, we still see the entrance on the north and the majority of similarities stay the same as in Dyn. 5 tombs.
What do these changes suggest about shifts in emphasis in Egyptian religion? What other evidence shows this shift in emphasis in Egyptian religion?
- Changes in Egyptian religion can be seen in the layout of these pyramids but what really shows a shift in religious views is the Dyn. 5 creation of sun temples dedicated to Re.
What sorts of positions did high court officials hold (e.g., vizier, governor, priest, anything else)? What are some of the elements of their burial complexes? What sorts of images are depicted in relief and painted wall decorations?
-Dyn. 5 courtiers begin to have higher status than their predecessors and this can be seen by the complexity of their tombs and their location to the pharaohs tombs. One example of this is with Ptahshepses complex which had imitations of a royal tomb with a courtyard, boat house, courtyard, chapel and vestibule. He had many titles under Sahure, one of which was chief justice and king’s son. In Dyn. 6 we have the official Qar who served Pepi II. On reliefs in these officials’ tombs we see offerings made to the kings and depictions of everyday work and life in ancient egypt.
What evidence indicates these offices and titles were hereditary?
-We can see that these titles are hereditary by examining the tomb of Idu, son of Qar, who also became an official under Pepi I.
How is the case of Weni the Elder instructive of the status and roles of high court officials?
-Weni was an official who served under Pepi I, Merenre and Pepi II. Weni achieved many titles under the pharaoh, ending with the titles Chief Judge and Vizier which was one of the highest titles under the pharaoh. His autobiography states that he rose up as a nobody into the ranks.
Where and how was Weni buried? How did the excavation of his tomb enhance or change our portrait of him based on his autobiography?
-Weni was buried at Abydos in a mastaba tomb near his father and across from Khasekhemy’s complex.
-After excavation of his tomb archaeologists discovered that there were three generations of his family in the court under the pharaoh. Therefore, his autobiography was a little mis-representative of what really happened.
What factors led to the collapse of the Old Kingdom and the political turmoil of the First Intermediate Period? Why might the pharaoh’s power have decreased throughout the last half of the Old Kingdom?
-Some factors that led to the collapse of the old kingdom were: the rise in power of nomarchs, drought and possibly the long reign of Pepi II.
What evidence at Abydos confirms the written record of destruction of the necropolis during the First Intermediate Period?
-Evidence of burning at the necropolis and at Weni’s tomb confirm that written record was true.
How did the tombs of First Intermediate Period and early Middle Kingdom pharaohs differ from those of Old Kingdom pharaohs?
-Burials during the first intermediate period and early middle kingdom were typically rock cut tombs or burials in coffins (middle kingdom). There are some burials simply in the ground at the north cemetery at Abydos. (Indicative of middle class.
What is a saff tomb and where are these found?
-A saff tomb is a rock cut tomb but they are typically found in rows. (Beni Hassan)
Why did Mentuhotep II build his tomb complex at Deir el Bahri in Upper Egypt even though he reunited the Two Lands and initiated the Middle Kingdom? How is his tomb similar to, and different from, those of his predecessors?
-Mentuhotep built his complex at Deir el-Bahri probably due his Theban origins.
-Mentuhotep’s tomb was built deep in the cliffs next to Hatshepsut’s complex. His complex differed from the old kingdom in that it was very large and there is evidence of a small pyramid at the top of his mortuary temple. His burial shaft was behind the temple deep in the cliffs.
What are Coffin Texts? When do they become common? Where are they written?
-The Coffin Texts are a collection of ancient Egyptian funerary spells written on the inside of coffins beginning in the First Intermediate Period.
What is the common style of coffin in the Middle Kingdom? What is it made of and how is it usually decorated?
-Middle kingdom coffin’s are made of wood and are basically rectangular boxes This type of coffin remained common through the Middle Kingdom, though it was then that the anthropoid-shaped coffins first appeared as an inner container for the body placed within the rectangular outer coffin.
What is the outer coffin made of and how is it usually decorated?
The Outer coffin is made of wood and usually decorated with a false door (so the dead can exit), a pair of eyes (so the dead can look out at the activities), the east side featured an offering spell mentioning Osiris followed by a plea for the dead, the western side was decorated with the burial scene, where the god Anubis was included in horizontal bands of hieroglyphs, followed by a plea by the deceased for a beautiful burial.
What is cartonnage?
-Cartonnage is a type of material composing Egyptian funerary masks from the First Intermediate Period onward. It was made of layers of linen or papyrus covered with plaster.
How do human remains inform us about life and death in Middle Kindgom Egypt?
-Human remains can tell us of the living and working conditions during the Middle kingdom as well as allow us to have a rough understanding of how diseases and injuries were treated. Remains also allow us to view death and how they treat their dead.
What kinds of pathology are found among human remains from Abydos? Would you like your dentition to resemble theirs?
- Pathologies found at Abydos are Tuberculosis, Brucellosis, Osteoarthritis, etc.
What is the evidence for occupational stress and trauma?
-There are indicators of trauma. In some cases we see simple fractures, a lot of them healed, and in some cases they appear to have had relatively adequate medical care for the period.
-Infection evidence is things like the lesions of the vertebrae (indicating tuberculosis) and vertebrae. Others are the Systemic Periosteal Reaction (which is when new bone is laid down on top of old bone; unorganized) and Osteomyelitis is where old bone will die and new bone will develop around that old bon
What are congenital anomalies, and what might they suggest about individuals buried at Abydos?
-Congenital anomalies suggest the individuals who have them may be genetically related in someway. These are anomalous features found on the skeleton that are a result of trauma, infection etc and the individuals are born with them.
Who were some of the major pharaohs of the Middle Kingdom? Where did Dynasty 12 pharaohs locate their mortuary complexes?
-Mentuhopep II, Amenemhet I, II, & III, and Senwosret I, II, & III.
- Lisht, Dashur, Ilahun, Hawara, Mazghuna, and S. Sakkara.
What are some architectural innovations found in pyramid complexes of this dynasty?
-These have more intricate interiors and are more maze-like. This was the era of pyramid experimentation!
How are mortuary complexes of these pharaohs similar to those of the Old Kingdom?
- a difference is that they are much smaller pyramids than those of the Old Kingdom.
Who was Queen Weret and why is she significant?
-Queen Weret was the wife of Senwosret III. We know that she lived a life of leisure but underwent serious physical stress due to dental disease. This tells us even the well off have to worry about diseases.
Where were the Hyksos from and where did they establish their Capitol?
-The Hyksos established their capital at Avaris. They were western Semite immigrants as well as Bedouin and Medjay immigrants who had livened in the delta area since the first intermediate period.
What innovations did they introduce to Egypt?
Musical instruments
Upright loom
Olive and pomegranate trees
Horse and water buffalo
Horse Drawn chariot
Composite bow
Scale armor
New types of daggers
Scimitar swords
Battle axe
Who were their competitors in Upper Egypt? With whom were they allied?
- The Hyksos competed with the Thebans (traditional Egyptians), and were allied with the Nubians to the South.
How and when were they defeated, and what evidence suggests that many battles were fought?
-We see increasing evidence for warfare towards the end of the 17th dynasty. Seqenenre Tao died violently and there is some confusion on how sudden his death was. However it appears that several injuries match up with Hyksos style weaponry. Seqenenre’s first son Kamose, also died rather suddenly.It was Ahmose Seqenenre’s second son who defeated the Hyksos. It is with him that the New Kingdom begins.
Where are the Dynasty 17 royalty and probably the earliest Dynasty 18 pharaohs buried and how? What and where is Dra’ Abu el-Naga?
-They are buried in Anthropomorphic cartonnage, which resembles the mummiform of Osiris. Entirely replaces the rectangular wooden coffin. They are found at Dra’ Abu el Naga. Which is found on the west bank of the Nile near Thebes and it is the burial place for most of Dynasty 17 and some 18 rules.
What is a rishi coffin and who was buried in them?
- A Risihi coffin is meant to resemble the ba with a feathered design.
Which Theban pharaoh reunited Egypt and founded the New Kingdom? Which Dynasty 18 pharaoh built the last royal pyramid and where?
-Ahmose reunited Egypt and founded the 18th dynasty(New Kingdom); pyramid at Abydos was the last royal pyramid built
How does it compare with earlier, Old Kingdom pyramid complexes, that of Senwosret III at Abydos, and with later New Kingdom complexes?
-Has a terrace temple, the tomb is self is subterranean that is very long, rock cut and very twisty, and dissociated to confuse and fool the looters. It has the first Friezes of battles on the inside with the first horses, chariots and archers .
Who is Tetisheri and why is she important?
She is the Ahmose’s grandmother. She was first thought to have a shrine near the Ahmose pyramid, but it was later determined to have been a mudbrick pyramid that had it’s own cult following. She is show with an abnormal amount of power.
What other royal women of late Dynasty 17 to the beginning of Dynasty 18 are significant and why? Which woman has military honors found in her
-Ahotep, Ahmose’s mother. She served as coregent and was awarded military honors.
Ahmose-Nefertari wife of Ahmose who is the first living royal woman to be named “god’s wife of Amun”. She was thought to be extremely powerful and important
What role did the priesthood and the military play in administering the state in the New Kingdom?
-Militarism expanded the borders and increased trade (and ties) with other states
Who was the state god during the majority of the New Kingdom?
Amun the god of War
What are the two main temples on the East Bank in Thebes, the New Kingdom capital of Egypt?
What are the two main festivals that celebrated the Estate of Amun in Thebes?
-The two main temples on the East Bank of Thebes are Luxor and Karnak
-The two main festivals are the Festival of the Valley (which is taking statues of the gods from temples and circling them around) and The Festival of the Opet
What are some of the features of the royal mortuary temples (e.g., the Ramesseum, Medinet Habu) at Thebes? Why are there so many storage facilities?
-The temples were at the edge of the cultivation/floodplain. They contain vast storage rooms (for grain). There was a palace associated with these as well.
-These are associated with the mortuary temples on the West Bank. When the 2 Festivals that take the gods from temples and circling them around are occurring, granaries will be opened for redistribution of grains as well.
What role did the storage facilities play in administering the state and redistributing resources?
-These stored grains and the priesthood would redistribute them to the people during the 2 festivals.
Was there a master plan for the Valley of the Kings or not?
-There wasn’t a master plan in the organization of the Valley of the Dead the construction and planning/layout of burials does later become organized
What are some of the features of the royal tombs in the Valley of the Kings?
- They are decorated with Egyptian mythology (from the Amduat) and there was equipment present that the king may have used in their lifetime (sandals for example). Theres 3 different forms: bent axis, jagged axis, and straight axis, as well as that the entrances were hidden.
Who decorated the royal tombs?
-Deir el-Medina village workers decorated the interior of the tombs
Who decorated the royal tombs? How did royal tomb plans and decoration change between the 18th and 20th Dynasties and how might this reflect changes in religion?
-From 18th to 19th, there was a more standardization of tomb layout and decoration. The development of the tomb entrance & passage, as well as of decoration begins to appear. From 18th to 20th, there is a growth of superb decoration. The changes in religion are reflected by the growth of popularity of the Festival of the Valley (which promoted Amun-re).
Are there curses written on tombs; where and what threats?
-Sometimes there are curses written on the on the doorways or burial exterior; when there are, they threaten those who are impure saying that they will be eaten or that their spirit will be destroyed.
Can excavating ancient Egyptian burials be hazardous to your health?
Possibly, it has been suggested that toxic gases trapped inside the tomb, radioactivity in the mummy itself, the lack of air circulation inside the tomb making breathing difficult, could be killing of excavators.