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29 Cards in this Set

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  • Back


Reconciliation creates patterns of change that negate the old patterns of violence to "create...well-being that meets the needs of all parties"

Reconciliation is both transformative and constructive; it brings conflicting parties together, helps them to develop positive dispositions towards one another, and to reach agreements

Reconciliation requires imagination and creativity are required to reconcile the self and "other"; to reckon with chosen traumas, and to encourage coexistence.


An approach to reconciliation that involves truth-telling, the redefinition of the identities of the perpetrators, changing the relationship between conflicting parties, and finally the changing of the emotional attachments and drives of both sides.

Forgiveness is a very difficult reconciliation technique to carry out, and in some cases it is not possible.


An approach to reconciliation that is a "costly, novel, voluntary, and irrevocable concession," and results in a reduction in future conflict.

Further, signalling fits into the Rational choice model, where the "tit for tat" strategy is the one most often used in the negotiation process.

Signalling is not a lasting peace - forgiveness is a better model for lasting peace.


(Booth, Nobles)

An approach to reconciliation that Booth describes as "reconciliation through listening." Nobles further asserts that this approach requires communicative acts such as apologies, which in turn involve admissions of wrongdoing (recognition.Ismael asserts that spontaneity has a place in communicative approaches to reconciliation in that those in violent communities, especially perpetrators, engage in spontaneous acts of reconciliation when given the opportunity to communicate because of the genuine connection established through face-to-face communication.


An approach to reconciliation that focuses on what religion teaches: forgiveness, non-violence, and a duty to humanity (the categorical imperative)

Religious leaders become leaders of reconciliation within the bounds of this approach.

Justice and Mercy

An approach to reconciliation Partners or antagonists

Sense of Justice

A goal of reconciliation that results in attempts to re-balance the relationship between conflicting parties. Perpetrators become those who "owe", and parameters must be established for what action needs to be taken in order for the victims to be satisfied. The balance between vengeance and forgiveness is a big factor here.

Personal healing and Empowerment

(Levinas, Frankl)

A goal of reconciliation that looks at repairing physical, psychological, and emotional harms. Levinas writes that conflicts necessarily involves a loss of control over the capacity to take action; this goal, then, involves returning the capacity to take action to the conflicting parties. Frankl, while writing about the Holocaust, identifies reconciliation as a way to create meaning, and considers three psychotherapeutic approaches to creating meaning:

1. The cognitive approach deals with how the conflicting parties think about the trauma

2. The narrative approach helps conflicting parties to unpack the story of their conflict

3. The behaviour approach addresses the behaviours that have been the result of pre-existing traumas, and narratives in the context of conflict.

New Relationships

A goal of reconciliation that runs on a reconciliatory spectrum through the following steps: no fear of further harm --> living together --> coexistence, tolerance, and trust --> collaboration --> friendship.

Collectivities can only occur after the completion of the above continuum for broad and lasting peace.

Structural Change

A goal of reconciliation structural that involves the institution of: political inclusion, economic equality and non-exploitation, having basic needs for living met, and having a geographically intermixed population.


A goal of Reconciliation that builds focus in the reconciliation process on understanding the perspectives of the both the victims and the perpetrators (emotional intelligence).

The goal here is to rise above the conflict and build positive, progressive relationships.

This goal has definite spiritual undertones and might go where with a spiritual approach to reconciliation.

Iterative Process

Reconciliation is an iterative process that involves progress, regress, and reassessment in the process of attempting to change situations of marginalization and oppression.

Pre-Requisites for Reconciliation

- The outcome is desirable and attainable

- There is a vision and a mandate

- There are sufficient resources to carry out the reconciliation

- The reconciling parties will be free from threat

Discursive and Symbolic Processes for Reconciliation

- Symbolic and ritual processes: meetings, visits, and gestures

- Using the instrumental approach which identifies goals and subsequently builds common ground

- Using a socio-emotional approach to manage the historical and emotional aspects of the conflict

*Both victims and perpetrators must be involved in the reconciliation processes

*Truths, both empirical (factual) and hermeneutical (experience or interpretation-based) need to be heard


*Acknowledgement and empathy

- transformation

- remorse, apologies, and amends

- reframing

- further associations

Meta-requisites for Reconciliation

(Charles E. Osgood)

- GRIT (Gradual Reciprocated Initiatives in tension-reduction)

*Reciprocal actions and acknowledgment

- New institutions

- Process skills and leaders are inclusive and reconciliatory

- Community reconciliation

Lao Tse

Avoid war to achieve goals

Sun Tzu

Treat prisoner's of war properly

Manusmriti (scholar)

Weapons used in conflicts should be restricted to reduce suffering. Unarmed and innocent people should not be attacked.

Aristotle - Just War

War is justified in: self-defence, defence of allies, and for advantage or gain.

War is a means to peace.


War must only be waged within the following conditions:

-a declaration of war is made by the proper authority,

-reparations are demanded before war is waged,

-antagonists are given the opportunity to settle

- war is the last resort

- only official armed force members join the fighting/are fought

- those who surrender are protected

Contravention is a ware crime


-War must be declared by right authority

-Peace should be sought

-Rulers should be held accountable for war, not soldiers

-Compassion should be shown to those who are captured, or conquered

Gratian - Decretum Gralcani

Establishes canon law (the principles of just war are standardized)


Jus ad bellum: proper authority, just cause, right intention

Assist the vulnerable


The colonization and attacking of indigenous peoples is unjust

Self-defence is an acceptable cause for war

War decisions should be made by experts through assessing the merit of a war outside of personal gain


Looked to regulate wars: one of the first thinkers on international law.

-Volitional law: domestic, national, and regional

Also held value by pacts and related obligations for regulation of the international system/war.

Jus ad Bellum

Rules for Declaring war:

1. Just Cause

2. Responsibility to protect

3. Proportionality

4. Reasonable chance of success

5. Legitimate Authority is declarer of war

6. Wat is the last resort

7. Right intention for the war

8. Just fight

Jus in Bello

Rules for Conflict:

- Geneva Conventions

- Combatants and non-combatants should be distinguished from one another

- Refugees should be protected

- Collateral damage should be minimized

Just post Bellum

Rules for After War:

1. Crimes against peace that may have caused the war should be identified

2. Crimes against humanity that caused harms should be identified

3. Reparations should be made

4. Apologies should be made

5. Environmental damages should be managed

Jus Potentia Ad Bellum

Rules for when one is potentially going to war:

1. Justice in preparing for war (prevention)

2. Appropriate armaments

3. Appropriate "types" of soldiers

4. Budget for war should be decided upon

5. Potential environmental damages should be considered

6. Technology to be used (drones, etc.) should be considered.