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206 Cards in this Set

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Developmental Psychologist are interested in identifying
The sequence of physical and psychological changes that human beings undergo as they grow older , beginning with conception and continuing throughout life
the various approaches to the study and understanding of human development all reflect to some degree a search for answers to at least 4 critical questions. They are:
A) Is development continuous or discontinuous
B) Are developmental phenomena uiversal or context dependent
C) Are people active participants in their own development or do they passively react to external forces
D) What are the relative contributions of heredity and the environment to development?
What is the name of the above
Nature-Nurture controversy
Define the two sides of the nature nurture controversy
A)Those individuals who have focused upon how heredity (nature) impacts development and the effects of biological maturation
B) Those who have considered the environment (nurture) to be critical and have emphasized the role of learning
What does the current debate center on regarding the above?
The current debate centers on the relative contributions of the two factors and the way in which they interact with one another to produce behavior
What do some experts propose?
Their is a genetically determined range of reaction for certain traits and that an individuals status within that range depends on environmental factors
True or False: Because of the difference in the impact of the two factors over the lifespan, it is possible to make more accurate generalizations about 2 year olds than 72 year olds. As people age, their behaviors become less the consequences of genetically determined patterns, and more the result of a whole range of environmental influences.
What are some examples of Polygenic Traits?
Height, Weight, Intelligence, and Personality
True or False: Genetic endowment traits are nfluenced by multiple genes and the result of a single pair of genes that either contain a single dominant gene or consists of two recessive genes.
What are some physical traits that require only a single dominant gene?
brown eyes, dark hair, farsightedness
What are some physical traits resulting from a pair of recessive genes?
Green, Hazel, and Blue eyes, Blond Hair, Nearsigntedness
The contribution of herdity to an observed characteristic is expressed in terms of a?
Heritability Estimate
What indicates the extent to which a Phenotype varies within a group of people as the result of differneces in genotype
Heritability Estimate
Refers to a Persons Genetic Inheritance
Refers to his/her observed characteristics which are attributable to a combination of heredity and environment
Many researchers have contrasted identical (Monozygotic) twins and fraternal (dizygotic) twins;Since identical twins have more common genes than fraternal twins, a greater similarity between the former implies a genetic influence on the trait being measured
Example of Genetic Similarity
True or False: The results of research suggest that intelligence, Schizophrenia, Bipolar Disorder, Alcoholism, temperament, Certain forms of Cancer, Hypertension, have a strong genetic component?
How many stages occur in prenatal development?
Name of the first two weeks of prenatal development?
Germinal Stage
During the Germinal stage of Prenatal development, what is the name of the fertilized ovum/
A Zygote
Name of the pre natal development stage that encompasses the beginning of the third week through the eighth week.
The Embryonic Stage
Name of the pre natal development stage which begins at the onset of the ninth week and continues until birth
The Fetal Stage
What is the ratio of infants who are born with a substantial birth defect?
1 in 6
What are some causes of birth defects?
Genetic Factors, Exposure to Teratogens, Poor Maternal Health, Complications during the birth process
True or False; Most birth defects attributable to Genetics are the result of either a pair of recessive genes or a Chromosomal abnormality?
What are some examples of recessive gene disorders?
SickleCellanemia, Tay-Sachs Disease, Cystic Fibrosis, Some forms of Diabetes, and Phenlyketonuria (PKU)
What are some examples of Chromosomal abnormalities?
The are either sex linked or autosomal--Turners, Klinefelters, and Fragle X syndromes are
What is the most common Chromosomal Birth Defect?
Down Syndrome (Trisomy 21)
What is the cause of Down Syndrome?
It is caused by an extra (#21) Chromosome
What are Teratogens?
Substances that cross the placental barrier and cause defects in the embryo or fetus
Exposure to Teratogens at which stafe of prenatal development is most likely to cause major structural abnormalities?
Embryonic Stage
What are some common Teratogens?
Alcohol, Narcotics, Cocaine, Nicotine, and Lead
Alcohol consumption by a woman during pregnancy can produce (A)___________ in the infant?
Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS)
True or False; The risk for FAS is highest and the symptoms most severe when the mother drinks heavily every day or , in the early stages of pregnancy engages in binge drinking/
Babies born to Narcotics Addicts are addicted themselvers and exhibit (A)____________
Neonatal Abstinence Syndrome
Characterized by tremors, restlessness, rapid respiration, seizures, and can lead to death
Neonatal Abstinence Syndrome
True or False; Cigarette smoking is associated with placental abnormalities that can causse fetal deaths and stillbirth, are at higher risk for a low birthweight, SIDS,respiratory diseases, and may have emotional disturbances and intellectual deficits?
Whatare some material conditions that could affect the fetus?
Rubella, HIV/Aids, Malnutrition, Stress
What is Anoxia?
Oxygen shortage
Can cause Anoxia to the fetus during the birth process
A) A twisted umbilical cord
B) The sedatives given to the mother
What are some potential consequences of Anoxia?
A)Delayed motor and cognitive development
B)Mental Retardation
C)In Severe Cases-Cerebral Palsy
When an infant is explosed to Herpes Simplex 2 during the birth process, what is the baby at risk for?
Death, Brain Damage, Blindness
What is a common practice of Childbirth when a mother is infected with the Herpes virus?
Delivering babies through Cesarian Section
True or False: The physical status of newborns is described in terms of lenth of gestation and birth? weight.
A full term infant has a gestational age of?
37-42 Weeks
True or False: An infant born after 42 weeks is post-mature?
True or False: When a newborns weight is below the 10th percentile for his or her gestational age, the infant is small for gestational (SGA); When the infant's weight is above the 90th percentile, it is large for gestational (LGA)
What has the risk for prematurity been linked to?
Low Socioeconomic Status, Teen Mothers, Malnutrition, and Drug Use
When a women is infected with (A)________ during the first trimester, the infant is at high risk for heart defects, blindness, deafness, and mental retardation
Malnutrition is associated with a number of abnormalities with severe (A)________ deficiency being especially detrimental for the developing brain
A) Protein
How far can the newborn see at birth?
20 Feet
At what age is the infants visual acuity probably very close to that of a normal adult?
Six Months
True or False; The fetus hears sounds in the uterus during the last months of development?
Unlearned responses to a particular stimuli in the environment are?
Name 6 major reflexes of the newborn.
Babinski, Babkin, Rooting, Moro, Palmar Grasp, Stepping
Toes fan out and upward when soles of the feet are tickled
Babinski Reflex
Closes eyes, opens mouth, and turns head to the side when pressure is applied to both palms
Babkin Reflex
Turns head in the direction of touch applied to the cheek
Rooting Reflex
Flings arms and legs ourtward and then toward the body in response to a loud noise or sudden loss of physical support
Moro Reflex
Grabs objects lightly when placed in palm
Palmer Grip Reflex
Makes coordinated walking movements when held upright with feet tocuching flat surface
Stepping reflex
At birth, what percentage is attributed to the size of brain?
It is only 25% of it's birth weight
By what age has the brain reached nearly 80% od it's adult weight?
2 y/o
The formation of glial cells are responsible for ?
The myelination of the nerve fibers
At what age does the brain reach it's full weight?
What part of the brain is responsable for hight level cognitive functions, language, spatial skills, and complex motor activities?
Cerebral Cortex
When do Gender differences in motor development begin to appear?
Middle Childhood
Piagets Constructivism
A) The most influential therory of cognitive development
B)The basic preise of Piagets Constructivism is that people actively construct higher levels of knowledge from elements contributed throught biological maturation and the environment
Some Concepts which are fundamental to Piaget's Theory are
A)Adaptation-Piaget believed that, just as living organisms adapt to their environment biologically, people adapt to their environment cognitively. Adaptation entails 2 complementary processess-Assimilation and Accomodation.
B)Equilibration- The motivation for cognitive development comes from a drive toward cognitive balance or equilibrium
Piaget described cognitive development as involving an invariant sequence of how many stages? Name them.
1-Sensorimotor (Birth-2 yrs)
2-Preoperational (2-7 yrs)
3-Concrete Operational(7-11 yrs)
4-Formal Operational (11+ years)
At which stage is thought based on action a child learns about objects through sensory information provided by them (how they look, feel, and taste) and the action that can be performed on them (sucking, grasping, hitting, etc)
Sensorimotor Stage
A key accomplishment of this stage is the development of object permanence which allows the child to recognize that objects continue to exist when they are out of sight.
Sensorimotor Stage
The ability to imitate someone or something no longer present is called (A)__________ and occurs during which stage (B)______________
A) Deferred Imitation
B) Sensorimotor Stage
The stage that begins with the emergence of the semiotic function (representational thought) which enables a child to use a symbol, object, gesture or word to stand for something and thereby use language and to think about past and future events
PreOperational Stage
The stage of cognitive development where Children demonstrate intuitive thinking, engage in symbolicplay and can solve problems mentally.
Pre-Operational Stage
What factors are limited during the pre-operational stage of cognitive development
A)Egocentrism, Animism
B)Unable to understand that actions can be reversed
C)Unable to conserve or recognize that changing one dimension of an object does not change it's other dimensions (Ex. Pouring a liquid from a short fat glass to a tall thin one-more likely to say ther is more liquid in the tall one)
In this stage of cognitive development Children are capable of mental operations which are logical rules for transforming and manipulating information
Concrete Operational Stage
During this stage of cognitive development, a person is able to think abstractly, relativistically, and hypothetically.
Formal Operational Stage
What are some specific processes that psychologist interested in information processing focus on?
Perception, Memory, Inference, and the use of rules
What is the Vygotskyian Approach?
Russian Psychologist Vygotsky acknowledged the impact of biology on cognitive development, but placed greater emphasis on cultural factors
The Zone of Proximal Development is basic concept in whose theory?
What is the zone of Proximal Development?
It refers to the distance between a childs current developmental level (ex. the level at which the child can function independently) and the level of development that is just beyond his or her current level
(A)_________describes cognitive performance and development as involving interactions between the individual and his or her context, which may produce change in both the individual and the context
Bronfenbrenners Ecological Systems Theory
What are the four nested levels in Bronfenbrenners theory?
The Microsystem, Mesosystem, Exosystem, Macrosystem
Encompasses the face to face relationships between the person and the immediate setting (eg. People in the home, school, and workplace)
Is made up of the interrelationships between the major settings in which the person participates in (eg. between family members and between family members and school personnel)
Composed of Social Structures that impinge upon or encompass the person's immediate settings (eg. neighborhood, church, mass media, government, parents workplace)
Refers to the ideologies, customs, values of the persons culture and subculture that determine the patterns of structures and activities that occur at the concrete level
Do children and adults differ with regard to both short term(working) and long term memory?
What is metacognition?
The ability to think about our thinking
What is metamemory?
The aspect of metacognition that involves an ability to reflect on memory as a process
Define Infantile Amnesia
The ability to remember events from childhood indicate that children and adults are rarely able to recall experiences that occurred prior to age three
What are one of the most consistent findings regarding gifted children?
Gifted children achieve slightly higher scores on measures of self concept,especially academic self concept, have better meta cognitive skills;more aware of their cognitive processes thatn their non-gifted peers and are better at selecting, applying, and evaluating cognitive strategies
According to Piaget, what does Assimilation involve?
It involves incorporating new information into existing schemas
According to Piaget, What does Accomodation entail?
It entails modifying existing schemas to incorporate new informatiom
Piagets Preoperational stage begins with the emergence of (A)___________
Semiotic Thought
What is Semiotic Thought?
It is representational thought. It enables a child to use a symbol, object, gesture, or word to stand for something.
Piagets (A)________stage is characterized by the ability to think abstractly, relativistically, and hypothetically
Formal Operations Stage
Research comparing the memory of children and adults suggest that until about age (A)_________Children do not regularly use rehearsal, elaboration, and other memory strategies.
Improvements on Cognitive tasks that occur as children get older seem to be due in part, to improvements in (A)___________
What is the Nativist approach in language development?
It attributes language acquistion to biological mechanisms and stresses universal patterns of language development
What is an innate language acquisition device (LAD)
It makes it possible for a person to acquire language just by being exposed to it.
According to the Nativist Approach proposal in language development - studies show that children master the baskics of language between the ages of (A)__________
4-6 regardless of complexity of their native language
True or False: Children from all cultures pass through the same stages of language development?
According to Nativist approach, what is critical period for language
It is sometime between infancy and puberty
What is the interactionast approach to language development?
Interactionast regard language development as the result of a combination of biological and environmental factors
What is the Social communications version of the interactionast approach?
It stresses the impact of social interactions. For instance, in at least some cultures, adults seem to naturally use motherease when speaking to very young children
What is motherease
When you speak more slowly, use shorter and simpler sentences, exageratte and repeat the ost important words, and frequently ask questions.
How many dimensions is language described in? What are they?
Five- Phonology, Morphology, syntax, Semantics, Pragmatics
Refers to what language sounds like. Phonemes are the smallest units of sound in a language
Refers to its rules for word formation. Morphenes are the smallest combination of sounds that have a meaning. Prepositions, prefixes, suffixes, and whole words are morphenes.
Refers to the rules of grammar that specify how words are to be combined to form sentences
The rules for selecting the words and phrases that express the intended meaning. An understanding of Semantics is necessary to interpert sentences, paragraphs, etc.
Specify how language is to be used in different social context. Pragmatics encompass rules related to turn taking, non verbal behaviors and the use of slang
What does "surface structure" refer to in language development?
Refers to the organization of words, phrases, and sentences
What does "deep structure" refer to in language development.
Refers to the underlying meaning of sentences
Chomskys notion of transformational grammar.
Speaking involves transforming deep structure (meaning) into surface structure (grammatical sentences), while listening entails transforming a sentence's surface structure into it's deep structure
What are some stages of language acquisition?
Crying, Cooing and Babbling, Echolalia, and Expressive Jargon, Holophasic Speech, Telegraphic speech, vocabulary growth, grammatically correct sentences, metalinguistic awareness.
Beginning at 6-8 weeks, infants produce simple cooing sounds that consist mainly of vowels and that are usually emitted when the infant is happy and contented
At about four months of age-babbling-which involves the repetition of simple consonant and vowel sounds (Ex. bi-bi-bi)
True or False: Between 9 and 14 months babies narrow their repertoire of sounds to those of their native language?
Beginning at about 9 months children imitate adult speech sounds and words without an understanding of their meaning
Expressive Jargon
Follows echolalia by vocalizations of sounds that resemble sentences, but that again have no meaning
Holophasic Speech
From 1-2 years children use holophases which ae single words that express whole phrases and sentences
Telegraphic Speech
By 18-24 months children string 2 or more words together to make a sentence
Vocabulary Growth
Prior to 18 months , vocabulary growth is slow. Ater that point children begin to exhibit a rapid increase in vocabulary-fastest rate of growth occuring between 30-36 months
Early studies comparing language acquisition in boys and girls found?
Girls speak earlier, articulate better, and have fewer speech defects
Refers to the strong emotional bond that develops between an infant and his/her primary caregiver
How does psychoanalytic theory describe attachment of an infant to it's mother?
The consequence of oral gratification
How does learning theory describe attachment of an infant to it's mother?
Regards it more generally as the result of reinforcement
Which theory has received more support-Psychoanalytic or learning?
Learning theory
Harlows research with rhesus monkeys concluded what?
That a baby's attachment to its mother is due in part to contact comfort, or the pleasant tactile sensation that is provided by a soft, cuddly parent
Ethological Theory
Proposes that humans and other organisms have a biological tendency to form attachments because the help guarantee an infants survival
True or False: Bowlby applied the notion of critical period to human attachment and proposed that exposure of an infant to it's mother during this period results in a bond with them
Stranger Anxiety
6-8 months old children become very anxious and fearful in the presence of strangers. It continues to age 2 and then diminishes.
Separation Anxiety
Refers to severe distress that occurs when a child is separated from his or her primary caretaker-Begins 7-8 months of age and peaks in intensity at 14-18 months and then gradually declines
Name 4 patterns of Attachment
Insecure (Anxious/Avoidant)
Insecure (Anxious/Ambivalent)
Secure Attachement
Securely attached infant is mildly upset by his/her mothers absence
Insecure (Anxious/Ambivalent)Attachment
Baby becomes very disturbed when left alone with a stranger but are ambivalent when their mother returns and may become angry and resist her atempts at physical contact.
Insecure (Anxious/Avoidant) Attachment
An avoidant baby shows little distress when his or her mother leaves the room and avoids or ignores her when she returns
Disorganized/Disoriented Attachment
These children exhibit fear of their caretakers confused facial expressions, and a variety of other disorganized attachment behaviors
Does early attachment affect subsequent development?
Yes. At age 4 or 5 children who are securely attached as infants are usually more curious, more popular with peers, and less dependent on adults, and as adults they have a high self esteem, and a strong sense of personal identity
Anaclitic Depression
A syndrome involving developmental delays, unresponsiveness, and withdrawal
Accorging to Bowlby a childs reaction to prolonged separation from a primary caretaker involves three stages;Name them.
The protest stage, The Despair stage, and The Detachment stage
Protest Stage
The child refuses to accept the separation and responds by crying scraming, kicking
Despair Stage
Follows the protest Stage-In which the child seems to give up all hope andbecomes quiet, inactive, and withdrawn
Detachment Stage
If the separation continues, the detachment stage occurs. The child begins to accept attention from others, seems less unhappy, and may react with disinterest when visited by the caretaker
Prolonged separation from a caregiver is least likly to have a negative effect on the infant when the infant is?
Less than 3 years of age
Ealy institutionalization may lead to a condition known as?
Anaclitec Depression
(A)________refers to a person's basic disposition. It is a characteristic that seems to be strongly affected by heredity and is to some degree apparent at birth.
What does Rothbart propose as it relates to temperament?
Individual differences in temperament reflect differences in reactivity (excitability) and self control (inhibition)
Buss and Plomin consiter variations in temperament as due to what?
Differences in emotionality, activity, and sociability
True or False: Evidence for a genetic etiology of this characteristic (temperament) s provided by studies showing that identical twins are more similar in terms of temperament than fraternal twins.
According to Thomas and Chess, How are infants and children characterized regarding temperament?
Easy, difficult, slow to warm up children
Does temperament in infancy correlate somewhat with later personality and adjustment.
What are Freuds Psychosexual Stages?
Oral (Birth to 1 yr)
Anal (1-3 yrs)
Phallic (3-6 yrs)
Latency (6-12 yrs)
Genital (12+ yrs)
Oral Stage
The mouth is the focus of sensation and stimulation during this stage. Weaning is the primary source of conflict. Fixation results in dependence passivity, gullibility, sarcasm, and orally focused habits (smoking, nailbiting, overeating, etc)
Anal Stage
Main issue during this stage is the control of bodily waste and conflicts stemming from issues related to toilet training. Fixaion produces anal retentiveness (Stinginess, selfishness, obsessive compulsive behavior) or anal expulsiveness (cruelty, destructiveness, messiness)
Phallic Stage
The primary taks is the resolution of the Oedipal conflict which is marked by a desire for the opposite sex parent and a view of the same sex parent as the rival. A successful outcome results from identification with the same sex parent and development of the superego. Fixation can produce a phallic character which involves the sexual exploitation of others.
Latency Stage (6-12 yrs)
During this stage libidinal energy is diffuse rather than focused on any one area of the body and the emphasis is on deveoping social skills rather than achieving sexual gratification.
Genital Stage (12 +)
Libido is again centered in the genitals and successful outcome in this stage occurs when sexual desire is blended with affection to produce mature sexual relationships.
How does Erikson's theory of Psychosocial Development differ from Freuds?
A)Erikson stresses the role of social (verses sexual) factors and his stages of development each involve a different pshychosocial crises
B) Erikson places greater emphasis on the ego than on the id
C) Erikson views personality development as a process that continues throughout the lifespan and involves an increasing "widening circle" of contacts with significant individuals, social institutions, and cultural practices
What are Eriksons eight stages of development?
A) Basic Trust vs Mistrust (infancey)
B) Autonomy Vs. Shame/Doubt (toddlerhood)
C) Initiative Vs. Guilt (Early Childhood)
D)Industry vs. Inferiority
(School Age)
E)Identity vs Role Confusion (Adolescence)
F)Intimacy vs Isolation (Young Adulthood)
G)Generativity Vs Stagnation
(middle adulthood)
H)Integrity vs. Despair
(maturation/old age)
Trust vs. Mistrust (Infancy)
A positive relationship with one's primary caretaker during infancy results in a sense of trust and optimism
Autonomy vs. Shame and Doubt (Toddlerhood)
A sense of self (autonomy) develops out of positive interactions with one's parents or other caretakers
Initiative vs. Guilt (Early childhood)
Family members are the primary 'significant' others during early childhood. Favorable relationships result in an ability to set goals and devise and carry out plans without infringing upon the rights of others.
Industry vs. Inferiority (School Age)
The most important influences at this stage are people in the neighborhood and school. To avoid feeling of inferiority the school age child must master certain social and academic skills.
Identity vs. Role confusion (Adolescence)
Peers are the dominant social influence in adolescence. A positive outcome is reflected in a sense of personal identity and a direction for the future
Intimacy vs Isolation (Young Adulthood)
The main task during early adulthood is the establishment of intimate bonds of love and friendship. If such bonds are not achieved, self absorbtion and isolation will result
Generativity vs. Stagnation (Middle Adulthood)
The people one lives and works with are most important during this stage. A generative persons exhibits committment to the well being of future generations
Integrity vs Despair (Maturation/Old Age)
In this final stage, social influence broadens to include all of 'humankind'. A sense of integrity requires coming to terms with one's limitations and mortality
What are the four periods of the lifespan according to levinson.
Infancy through Adolescence
Early Adulthood
Middle Adulthood
Late Adulthood
Who has presented one of the most widely cited frameworks for understanding the impact of parenting on personality development.
Ms. Baumrind (1991)
What two dimensions of parenting does her (Baumrind) approach combine to derive four parenting styles?
Warmth and Control
Authoritarian Parents
They exhibit a high degree of control and little warmth. They impose absolute standards of conduct, stress obediance, and are willing to use harsh punsishment to gain compliance. Their children are often irritable, aggressive, and dependent and have a limited sense of responsibility, low levels of self esteem, and academic achievement
Authoritative Parents
They combine rational control with warmth, responsiveness, and encouragement of independence. Althought they set clear rules and high standards for their children, they explain the rationale for their decisions and encourage discussion. Children of these parents are asertive, self confident, socially responsable, achievment oriented, and often achieve high grades in school.
Indulgent Permissive Parents
Are Warm and caring, but provide little control, make few demands, and are non punitive. Their children tend to be impulsive, self centered, easily frustrated, and low in achievement and independence
Indulgent Uninvolved Parents
Exhibit low levels of warmth and control, and they minimize the time and effort they spend with their children. Children of these parents have low self esteem, and are often impulsive moody and aggressive.
True or False: Parents rely on different disciplinary techniques to reduce aggression and other undesireable behaviors in their children?
Power assertion and Induction are examples of what?
Discliplinary Techniques
Power Assertion
A directive style that relies on physical punishment, threats, and deprivation
True or FalseThe use of punishment to control agression can actually increase aggressiveness in children. :
It is charecterized by the use of reasoning, praise, explanation, and the communication of clear standards of behavior. Induction is associated with a number of benefits including reduced aggression and increased pro social behaviors
What are Kubler Ross' five stages of Death
A)Denial and Isolation (No, this isn't happening to me)
B) Anger (Why me?)
C)Bargaining (Yes me, but not until my grandchild is born)
D) Depression (Yes me)
E) Acceptance (My time is close, and that is alright)
According to Atchley adjustment to retirement involves four stages. Name them.
A)The pre retirement phase-Involves making plans for the future
B)The honeymoon phase-Right after retirement. Retirees enjoy new found freedom.
C)Disenchantment- As novelty wears off-What retirees face.
D) Re orientation phase- Retired adults put together a satisfactory and realistic lifestyle
True or False: A negative outcome is more likely for people who retire early because of poor health or have substancial financial problems after retirement?
Gender role development involves acquiring (A)_______
A gender identity and adopting gender role behaviors
Social Learning Theory
Proposes that it is the result of a combination of observational learning and differential reinforcement
An explanation for gender typing which is provided by Kohlberg is called (A)_______
Cognitive Developmental Theory
Under Kohlbergs explanation of Cognitive Developmental Theory children acquire a gender identity at what age?
2 or 3
When children realize that gender idnetity is stable over time what is this termed?
Gender stability
Gender Constancy
By age 6 or 7 children understand that gender is constant over situations and know that people cannot change gender by superficially altering their external appearance or behavior.
True or False: Beginning in Middle age, there may be some degree of gender-role reversal with men becoming more passive, expressive, sensitiv, and dependent, and women becoming more active, outgoing, independent, and competitive.
Ethnic/Racial Identity
Refers to that part of the self concept that is related to one's membership in a particular ethnic or racial group along with one's feelings and beliefs concerning group membership.
Acculturation has four forms. Name them.
Involves identifying solely with the majority culture
Is charecterized by identification with and involvement in both cultures
Involves identifying exclusively with one's own culture
Marked by a lack of identification with either culture
True or False: Of these options, intergration leads to better psychological adjustment and higher self esteem
Marcia distinguished four states of identity issues in adolescence. Name them.
Identity Diffusion
Identity Foreclosure
Identity Moratorium
Identity Achievemnent
Identity Diffusion
Adolescents exhibiting diffusion have not yet experienced an identity crises, explored alternatives, or committed to an identity.
Identity Foreclosure
Adoldescents are manifesting foreclosure when they have not experienced a crises, but have adopted an identity (Occupation, ideology etc) that has been imposed by others (Often the same sex parents)
Identity Moratorium
Occurs when an adolescent experiences an identity crises and actively explores alternative identities. It is during this period that teens exhibit a high degree of confusion, discontent, and rebelliousness.
Identity Achievement
Adolescents who have resolved the identity crisis by evaluating alternatives and committing to an identity are "identity achieved". The choice of an identity is often not permanent, and further change may occur.
Who proclaimed that adolescence is a time of storm and stress involving emotional maladjustment?