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51 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
neurotransmitter chemical released at the ends of the nerve cells
afferent nerve
carry messages toward the brain and spinal cord
arachnoid membrane
middle layer of the three membranes that surround the brain and spinal cord
a type of glial cell that transports water and salts from the capillaries
autonomic nervous system
nerves that control involuntary body functions of muscles, glands, and internal organs
microscopic fiber that carries the nervous impulse along a nerve cell
blood-brain barrier
protective separation between the blood and brain cells. This makes it difficult for substances to penetrate capillary walls and enter the brain
posterior portion of the brain that connects the cerebrum with the spinal cord
cauda equina
collection of spinal nerves below the end of the spinal cord
central nervous system
the brain and the spinal cord
posterior part of the brain that coordinates muscle movements and maintains balance
cell body
part of a nerve cell that contains the nucleus
cerebral cortex
outer region of the cerebrum; containing sheets of nerve cells; gray matter of the brain
cerebrospinal fluid
circulates throughout the brain and spinal cord
largest part of the brain; responsible for voluntary muscular activity, vision, speech, taste, hearing, thought, and memory
cranial nerves
twelve pairs of nerves that carry messages to and from the brain with regard to the head and neck
microscopic branching fiber of a nerve cell that is the first part to receive the nervous impulse
dura mater
thick, outermost layer of the meninges surrounding and protecting the brain and spinal cord
ependymal cell
glial cell that lines membranes within the brain and spinal cord and helps form cerebrospinal fluid
efferent nerves
carry messages away from the brain and spinal cord; motor nerves
collection of nerve cell bodies in the peripheral nervous system
glial cell/neuroglial cell
cell in the nervous system that is supportive and connective in function
sheet of nerve cells that produces a rounded fold on the surface of the cerebellum
portion of the brain below the thalamus; controls sleep, appetite, body temperature, and secretions from the pituitary gland
medulla oblongota
part of the brain just above the spinal cord; controls breathing, heart, and the size of blood vessels: nerve fibers crossover here
three protective membranes that protect the brain and spinal cord
microglial cell
phagocytic glial cell that removes waste products from the central nervous system
motor nerve
carry messages away from the brain and spinal cord to the muscles and organs
myelin sheath
white fatty tissue that surrounds and insulates the axon of a nerve cell
macroscopic cord-like collection of fibers that carry impulses
nerve cell that carries impulses throughout the body; parenchyma of the nervous system
chemical messenger, released at the end of a nerve cell; stimulates another cell, which can be a nerve cell
oligodendroglial cell
clial cell that forms the myelin sheath covering axons
parasympathetic nerves
involuntary, autonomic nerves that regulate normal body functions such as heart rate, breathing, and muscles of the gastrointestinal tract.
essential, distinguishing tissue of any organ or system
peripheral nervous system
nerves outside the brain and spinal cord
pia mater
thin, delicate inner membrane of the meninges
large interlacing network of nerves
part of the brain anterior to the cerebellum and between the medulla and the rest of the midbrain
organ that receives a nervous stimulus and passes it on to afferent nerves
sciatic nerve
nerve extending from the base of the spine down the thigh, lower leg, and foot
sensory nerve
carries messages toward the brain and spinal cord from a receptor
spinal nerves
thirty-one pairs of nerves arising from the spinal cord
agent of change in the internal or external environment that evokes a response
connective and supporting tissue of an organ
depression or groove in the surface of the cerebral cortex
sympathetic nerve
autonomic nerves that influence bodily functions involuntarily in times of stress
space through which a nervous impulse travels between nerve cells or between nerve and muscle or glandular cells
main relay center of the brain; conducts impulses between the spinal cord and the cerebrum
vagus nerve
tenth cranial nerve; its branches reach to the larynx, trachea, bronchi, lungs, aorta, esophagus, and stomach
ventricles of the brain
canals in the brain that contain cerebrospinal fluid