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39 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back

nervous system

complex network of nerves and cells that carry messages to and from brain and other parts of body

what system is the communication network of human body?


motor control

study of the understanding of the mechanisms by which the nervous system and muscular systems coordinate body movements

motor development

study of motor performance throughout life span from birth through old age

motor learning

study of the acquisition of basic and advanced movement skills used in everyday activities

two divisions of the nervous system

central- brain and spinal cord

peripheral- motor and sensory nerves, receptors

neuronal synapse

the junction between to neurons that allows signal to be passed, chemical more common

sensory reception systems

main sensory info that guides selection and control of movement comes from vision and proprioception


info about the movement and orientation of the body and body parts in space via kinesthetic receptors

sensory receptor

a sensory nerve ending that responds to a stimulus in the internal or external environment

4 types of sensory receptors

muscle, tendon, skin, joint

spinal cord (3)

cylindrical bundle of nerve fibers, connects all parts of body to brain.

31 pairs of spinal nerves, responsible for control of reflex movements and maintenance of voluntary movements

spinal reflex

the simplest functional unit of integrated nervous system behavior

four things a reflex arc includes

1. sensory receptor

2. sensory neuron

3. motor neuron

4. effector (produces movement response)

what type of reflexes control gait?

spinal reflexes

example of flexion reflex

touching hot stove

areas of the brain that play role in motor control (4)

-motor cortex


-basal ganglia

-brain stem

motor cortex (3)

-region in cerebral cortex that helps with planning control and execution of voluntary movement

-receives feedback from all areas of bod and sends signals to skeletal muscles

-broken up into primary, premotor area, and supplemental motor area

cerebellum (3)

-in back of brain, has two lateral lobes and a central lobe

-controls voluntary movements, posture, and balance

-uses info from sensory neurons to fine tune body movements

basal ganglia (3)

-large masses of gray brain matter at base of cerebellum

-set of interconnected structures in forebrain

-helps with movement organization, scale and amplitude of movement, and perceptual motor integration

brain stem (2)

-posterior part of brain connected to spina cord

-relay center for info to and from cerebral cortex

motor development

we aren't born with fully developed motor systems, so we rely on reflexive movements at first

3 general motor development principles

-cephalocaudal principle

-proximodistal principle

-changes in muscle tone

development of locomotion

-shape and proportions of human at birth make mobility hard bc head is bigger, center of mass is high, limbs are short and lots of fat with no muscles

4 phases in development of walking






infant pulling herself along with stomach on floor


stomach off ground, moving around on hands and knees


able to pull herself up, holds something for balance at first

characteristics of early walking

short steps, little leg extension, flat footed landing, toes out, wide base of support, arms up in air

3 phases of reaching

-pre reaching up to 4 months

-visually guided reaching up to 8 months

-visually elicited reaching 9 months and older

changes for elderly (3)

-balance and posture (fall easier, sway, gait pattern change)

-walking patterns (lift feet less, walk slower, shorter strides

-more complex motor skills (decline generally with age)

measures used to assess performance (4)




-response latency

3 different movement classifications

1. open vs closed- open is unpredictable and externally paced, like team sports and closed is self paced like archery or bowling

2. discrete vs continuous- discrete have distinct beginning and end like swinging golf club, continuous have no set beginning and end point like swimming

3. fine vs gross movement-fine involves precision and small muscles like using scissors, gross involves many body parts and little precision like hopping


an improvement in performance

problems altering learning curve (2)

-fatigue, causing performance to decline

-reactive inhibition, psychological refusal to do work can decrease performance

3 stages of learning

-cognitive stage (basic strategies, high error) first start driving

-associative stage (begin to recognize errors, skill refinement) improve parking

-autonomous stage (movements become automatic) drive while changing radio station

3 classifications of practice schedules

1. blocked vs random- blocked is when skills are practiced separately each day, like driving and putting; random practices many on same day like shots, drives, puts

2. massed vs. distributed- massed is long practice sessions but fewer, distributed is shorter ones separated by breaks (which works better)

3. whole vs part- whole means you practice the entire task like shooting, part breaks up the components like jumping up and down separate from releasing ball

feedback (2)

-used to improve performance

-internal from receptors, external from your score, videos, or coach

information processing model