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84 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back

One pot approach

Abused and neglected

Status offenses



A youth who commits an act that would be a crime were it would be committed by an adult

Who is a juvenile


Juvenile offenders: Delinquents, status offenders

Retributive justice

Seeks revenge

Restorative justice

Focuses on repairing the harm done to the victims and to the community

Measuring the number of juvenile victimizations and offenses

Official data

Victimization survey

Self report

Offical data

Data gathered by the government agencies within the justice system

Victimization survey

Each household is interviewed twice a year. Survey enables BJS to estimate likelihood of crimes

Self report

Juveniles personally reveal information about their violation of the law

Centralized states

Characterized by a state executive agency having control across the board

Decentralized states

Characterized at minimum, local services

Combination states

Have a mix of state-controlled and local operations

Three components of the juvenile justice system

Law enforcement



Conservative approach to delinquency

Getting tough on kids

Liberal approach to delinquency

Heavy treatment oriented

What factors influence DMC (Disproportionate Minority Contact)




Mental health

Respecting authority

Strategies for addressing DMC




Transfer to criminal court

Corporal punishment

Inflicting bodily harm

Two major developments in England


Poor laws

Major events during the Puritan period

Indenture and apprenticeship

Poor houses

Private orphanages

Public facilities for dependent children


Major events during Refuge period

Houses of refuge

Reform schools

Foster homes

The child savers


Reduce the number of legal rules

Due process

Extend constitutions protection


Minimize court experience


Remove correctional programs of confinement

Kent vs. US

Due process before transferred to adult court

In re Gault

Must have basic constitutional rights

In re Winship

Proof beyond reasonable doubt

McKeiver vs. Pennsylvania

Jury trials not always needed

Breed vs. Jones

Waiver to adult court following adjudication

Martarella vs. Kelley

If juveniles judged to be in need of supervision are not provided adequate treatment, their deprived rights

Schall vs. Martin

Young man held in jail till trial because of no other supervision

Two parts to Theory



Three levels to explain delinquency

Individual- Genes, IQ

Micro- Family, Friends

Macro- Politics

Purpose of the law

Regulate human behavior

Protect interest of society

Consensus theory

Individuals within a society agree on basic values what is right and wrong

Conflict theory

Suggests that the laws are established to keep dominant class in power

The classical world view

Individuals act on free will

the positivist world view

Product of the environment

Rational choice theory

Holds that crime and delinquency are the result of a thought process

Bsocial perspective

Crime and delinquency holds that propensity for criminal behavior is heritable and interacts with the enviornment

Differential association

Criminal behavior is learned in interactions with other persons in a process of communication

Social disorganization theory

Can control over their environment

Functionalism theory

Understands aspects of society such as laws as a consensus: an agreed upon-called collective conscious

Strain theory

Emphasizes goals of society, but difficult to attain them

Radial concept

Involves a complex interaction of family, school, community, *family is most important


Illogical motor stage


Symbolic but logical


Organized logical reasoning


Abstract thinking

Kohlberg stages




Child maltreatment

An act by a parent that results in harm

Child neglect

When a parent does not provide for the basic emotional and physical needs of the child on an ongoing basis

Three components of child abuse and neglect laws

Criminal definitions and penalties

A mandate to report suspected cases

A civil process for removing child

Three primary risk factors for child abuse

Domestic violence


Individual temperamental factors

Vicarious strain

Strains experienced by others around the individual

Anticipated strain

Expectations the current strain will continue into future or new strains will be expected

Missing benign

Whereabouts are unknown to parents

Missing involuntary

Child trying to get home but can't because their lost


Child leaves home without permission/child is asked to leave by parent

Non family abduction

Nonfamily perpetrator takes a child by physical force

Stereotypical kidnapping

A stranger or slight acquaintance abducts child

Family abduction

Violation of custody order member has failed to return the child

Two federal agencies with concurrent jurisdiction

Administration for children: Social welfare

Justice department: Missing children present to law enforcement

Lessons from self reports

1) Most juveniles will not engage in delinquent activity.

2) Juveniles who commit delinquent act often commits the act once.

3) Property crimes will account got most delinquent activity.

4) Violent crimes will account for a smaller percentage of delinquent activity.

Trajectory one

Life-course persistent antisocial behavior: has its roots early in life

Trajectory two

Adolescence-limited antisocial behavior: characterized by discontinuity over time and across situations-offending is limited to adolescent years

Two reasons juveniles engage in sexual deviance

Curiosity, experimentation

Juvenile justice professional view

Punished as a criminal

Public health view

Youths are victims of social forces and need to be treated


The sense that an individual or specific group feels inferior to mainstream society

What are the goals of SRO programs

Prevent delinquency

Enhancing community relations

Detention hearing

Held within a period defined by state statue, to determine whether detention is required

Role and purpose of the intake officer

Decides whether a case should move ahead for court processing

Risk principle

Predicts the likelihood of recidivism.

Need principle

Interventions should map out dynamic needs

Responsively principle

Individuals respond differently to services, provide appropriate treatment


A permanent state of non-offending

Corrective prevention

Focusing on eliminating conditions that lead to or cause criminal behavior

Punitive prevention

Relies on the threat of punishment to forestall criminal acts

Mechanical prevention

"Target hardening" making it difficult or impossible to commit particular offenses; locks on doors, bars on windows

Primary prevention

Level 1: given to entire population whether or not there are signs, evidence, and or conditions of disorders/distress

Secondary prevention

Level 2: Population who show early signs of disorder but wants to stop it before it surfaces

Tertiary prevention

Level 3: Population who have a disorder where the goal is to lessen the impact of the disorder