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38 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Defining and responding to a youth as a delinquent. It can lead to stigmatization lost opportunities, and additional delinquent behavior.
Behaviors that fall within the jurisdiction of the juvenile court and result in processing by official juvenile justice agents.
Status Offenses
Acts that are considered illegal when committed by a child ,but not when committed by an adult. (running away,truancy, failure to obey parents directions)
A geographic area subject to a particular law or court.
Children in need of supervision
dolix incapax
Not capable of criminal intention or malice; unable to formulate criminal intent. (lack of maturity, to know right from wrong)
Waver,remand,Transfer,or certification
A legal process where by a juvenile is sent to adult court for trial
A youth who falls within an age range specified by state law. The age range varies from state to state.
Official Data
Information on juvenile delinquency collected by formal juvenile justice agencies, such as police agencies,juvenile courts and juvenile detention and correctional facilities
Uniform Crime Report
The most comprehensive compliation of known crimes and arrests. The reported is published each year by the FBI under the title Crime in the United States
Unofficial Data
Information collected by researchers not connected with formal juvenile justice agenies.
Self-Report Study
A study in which subjects are asked to report their involvement in illegal behavior.
Cohort Study
A study in which some specific group is studied over a period of time. (e.g.,those born during a certain year in a particular geographic location)
Socioeconomic Status
A person's position in a stratified society based on critera such as place of residence, family income, educational background,and employment history.
A person who continues to commit crimes despite efforts to rehabilitate or deter him or her
Observational Study
A study in which the researchers observes and collects data on subjects in a field setting
Political Economy
The basic political and economic organization of society, including the setting of political priorities and the management and distribution of economic resources.
Special interest group
An organization consisting of persons,corporations,unions,and so on,that have common political and often economic purposes and goals.
Child Abuse
Non-accidental acts directed against children that result in physical,sexual,psychological,or emotional harm.
The non-accidental failure of a caregiver to meet the physical psychological, or emotional needs of a minor or another person in the charge of the caregiver
House of Refuge
Privately operated child-care institution developed in the United States for children who engaged in illegal behavior or were felt to be at risk of such behavior.
Placing Out
The placement of children on farms and ranches in the midwest and west. It was popularized by private charitable organizations in the mid-1800's lasted until 1929.
The supervised released of an individual by a court. The child is usually retured to their parents by the court on conditions of release called "rules of probation" and court or state employees are the supervisors or monitors of the people on probation.
Reform School
An institution for control and reform of youths, it was funded by local or state government.
Child Savers
A group of reformers, mostly well-educated middle class protestant women of Anglo-Saxon descent who had the time and resources to fight for improved conditions for delinquent youths in jails and reformatories and who eventually played an important role in the creation of the positive side their work lead to wider acceptance of adolesence as an important developmental stage of life
Due Process
A course established for legal proceedings intended to ensure the protechtion of the private rights of the litigants
Chancery Court
English Court that was primarily concerned with property rights
Exclusionary Rule
A procedural rule that prohibits evidence that is obtained by illegal means or in bad faith from being used in a criminal trail
Miranda Warning
Specific warnings given to a suspect prior to questioning that informs them that statements they make to law enforcement agents can be used against them in court.
Pretrial Discovery
Efforts of a party to a lawsuit to obtain information prior to trial
Bills of Particulars
In a lawsuit, a written itemization of clams or charges provided by the plaintiff at the defendants request. The documents can serve as the factual basis of the allegations against the defendant
Informal Juvenile Justice Process
Actions to combat juvenile delinquency taken by parents neighbors, business owers teachers and others who are not part of the formal juvenile justice apparatus
Legally authorized deprivation of a person's liberty.
as a general rule a person is under arrest when he or she in not free to walk away
Institutional Racism and Bias
The ways that basic social institutions operate to keep minorities or poor people in subordinate positions
Probable Cause
Grounds sufficient to convince a reasonably competent person that a crime was committed and that the suspect commeitted it
The processing of juvenile offenders in ways that avoid the formal juvenile justice process
The act of redefining status offenses as social problems to be dealt with by welfare agencies as opposed to criminal actions to be handled by juvenile courts
Refers to actions taken to influence a persons behaviors by imposing or threatening to impose a legal sanction such as probation, incarceration, a fine,etc..