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180 Cards in this Set

  • Front
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define sfuso
tap wine
native white grapes of Friuli-Venezia Giulia
tocai friulano, malvasia, istriana, ribolla gialla & picolit
pioneers of modern wine techniques, i.e. stainless fermentation, no oak, no mlf
Mario Schiopetto, Livio Felluga & Others
Where in Friuli are you most likely to find wines labeled by variety
Carso, Collio, Colli Orientali del Friuli
Innovation of Josko Gravner
Burgundian-style oak aging in Friuli
most widely planted red in Friuli
Merlot - traditionally harvested with whites and drank young
alluvial, gravely vineyards of Isonzo & Grave are compared to which french region
best Friulian reds are from
Collio & Colli Orientali - hills above Abbazia di Rosazzo
characteristics of refosco
light and grapey; similar to gamay

characteristics of schioppetino
-very tannic
-vigorous grower requiring many green harvests
- spicy black fruit - think N. Rhone

characteristics of pignolo
rare, black cherry and tarry tannins of Brunello

best locale and characteristic of picolit
- best from Colli Orientali
- retains high levels of acidity when made into sweet wine
sweet DOCG of Friuli
Verduzzo Ramandolo
DOCGs of the Veneto
Recioto di Soave, Bardolino, Soave Superiore
1st producer to use Charmat method in producing prosecco
Antonio Carpene of Carpene Malvolti
Define: Colli Trevigiani
hills b/t Conegliano & Valdobbiadene
define: Cartizze
250 acres NE of Valdobbiadene - considered "crus" of prosecco
grapes of Soave
garganega with some trebbiano di Soave
- trebbiano di soave
- southern shore of L. Garda
- shared with Veneto & Lombardia
which grape adds acidity to Valpolicella
other native red grapes of the Veneto
croatina, negrara, dindarella
Bardolino rosé is called what
Bardolino DOCG
lighter counterpart to Valpolicella
length of drying time for Amarone appasimento
Oct. - Jan.
straw mats for drying grapes
Which grapes are used in Recioto di Soave DOCG
garganega & trebbiano di soave
How are whites in Trentino - Alto Adige labeled
by varietal
- grown pricipally in the Valle dei Laghi
- makes rare vin santo

best müller-thurgau from
Val di Cembra
Alto Adige is also known as
white grapes grown in Alto Adige
chardonnay, sauvignon blanc, pinot bianco, gewürztraminer, sylvaner
traditional vine training in Trentino - Alto Adige
define: ora
warm, drying afternoon breeze off L. Garda
most widely planted red grape of Trentino - Alto Adige
schiava aka vernatsch
teroldego characteristics
- thin skin, yet high in color & tannin extract
- blackberry, coffee, bitter chocolate
- Campo Rotaliano & Teroldego Totaliano DOCs
- Trentino
characteristics of lagrein
- dark & spicy - think Chinon - funky
- made into rosso & rosato
- Alto Adige
Franciacorta DOCG is located in which region
grapes allowed in Franciacorta
chardonnay, pinot nero, pinot bianco
define: Pase Operé
no dosage
aging requirements for Franciacorta
NV - 18mo. in bottle
Vintage - 30mo. in bottle
DOC laws for Oltrepò Pavese DOC spumante
70% pinot noir
mèthode champenoise
white wine of Oltrepo Pavese DOC
dry riesling
croatina is also known as what in Lombardia
bonarda characteristics
- spicy, dark fruit with coffee ground bitterness
- good tannins and acidity
red wines of Oltrepò Pavese
blends of barbera, bonarda, ughetta & some pinot nero
Lombardian synonym for appasimento
sforsato or sfursat
chiavannesca =
nebbiolo in Lombardia
4 vineyard sites of Valtellina DOCG
Sassela, Grumello, Inferno, Valgella
type of red wine produced in Franciacorta
Bordeaux style
the southern facing, terraced vineyards of Valtellina DOC run along which river
the Adda
synonym for nebbiolo in Valle d'Aosta
Blanc de Morgex
- rare sparkler from Valle d'Aosta
- made from prié blanc
- steely, ultra acidic
- mèthode champenoise
define: fumin
meaty, syrah-like red found in Valle d'Aosta
define: Valle d'Aosta Prëmetta
"rosato naturale" - red grape so thin skinned, only capable of producing rosé
- bright, strawberry fruit with cinnamon
define: flétri
French equivalent of passito
malvoisie =
pinot grigio
which two grapes are vinified sweet in the Valle d'Aosta
Chambave Muscat (muscat blanc) & Nus Malvoisie (pinot grigio) - both listed as flétri
grape and abv for sparkling Asti
moscato bianco
- 4-6% for frizzante
- 9% for spumante
characteristics of erbaluce
- chalky, acidic, floral & herbal
- grown N. of Torino around Caluso & Canavese
- made still, spumanti & passiti
1st DOCG to include both red and white
grape for Gavi DOCG
major white within Langhe DOC
burgundian-style chardonnay
Gattinara & Ghemme DOCGs
Spanna (nebbiolo) tempered with bonarda & vespolina in north-eastern Piemonte
most widely planted grape in Piemonte
barbera - incredibly adaptable & vigorous; used as filler where nebbiolo wouldn't ripen
best DOCGs for dolcetto
Dolcetto di Ovada (more rustic) & Dolcetto di Dogliani (comparatively rich)
aging requirements for Barbaresco & Riserva
2yrs, min 1 in oak
Riserva - 4yrs
aging requirements for Barolo & Riserva
3yrs, min 2 in oak
Riserva - min 5yrs
soil type in Barolo & Barbaresco
limestone-rich marl
early founders of Barolo
- Giulietta Falletti, marchioness of Barolo with Louis Oudart, french enologist - early 19th cen.
- Emanuele, 1st son of Vittorio Emanuele planted Fontanafredda circa 1870
characteristics of grignolino
- very light with spicy tang and orangy color
- produced in small quantities in Monferrato hills
- Piemonte
mapped individual plots and vineyards of Barolo & Barbaresco
Renato Ratti - 1960's
define: sorí
prized exposure; where winter snows would melt earliest
major rivers in Piemonte
Po & Tannaro
define: Freia d'Asti
- Piemontese answer to Lambrusco
- made in range of styles from dry to sweet
soil/style variations within Barolo
- Western = softer and more delicate - more fertile calcareous marls
- Eastern = deeper and denser - less fertile sandstone mixed with calcareous marl
"crus" of La Morra
Arborina, Marcenasco, Monfalletto, Carequio*, Brunate*
- aromatic and perfumed wines from NW sector of Barolo

*= shares vineyards with Barolo
"crus" of Barolo
Cannubi, Sarmassa, Brunate*, Carequio*
- broadest, most open, youthful wines

*=shares vineyards with La Morra
"crus" of Castiglione Falletto
Rocche, Monprivato, Villero
- geographic center of appellation with wines splitting characteristics accordingly
"crus" of Serralunga d'Alba
Lazzarito, Vigna Rionda, Prapò, Omato, Monfortino
- eastern edge of Barolo DOCG
- more sandstone = more depth, extraction & tannin
"crus" of Monforte d'Alba
Bussia, Ginestra, Santo Stefano di Perno
- big, bold & dark; best sites in all Barolo DOCG
communes of Barolo
La Morra, Barolo, Castiglione Falletto, Serralunga d'Alba, Monforte d'Alba
communes of Barbaresco
Barbaresco, Neive, Trieso
"crus" of Barbaresco
Secondine - (Sori San Lorenzo, Tildin, Costa Russi), Pajé, Asili, Martinenga; Montestefano
- fruitiest and most generous
"crus" of Neive
Basarin, Gallina, Starderi, Serraboella
- highest altitude: austere, perfumed, frim tannins
"crus" of Trieso
Trieso, Bernardot, Nervo
- southern end of Barbaresco; least known
modern improvements to Barolo & Barbaresco
- use of barriques (Gaja, '60's)
- controlled temp fermentation
- shortened maceration & fermentation times
- use of roto-fermenters
- clone selection, green harvest, dense planting
Brachetto d'Aqui DOCG
still & sparkling allowed, rose & strawberry aromas; good chocolate pairing
- Piemonte
define: ormeasco
synonym for dolcetto in Liguria
white wine of Liguria
vermentino - wild fennel & herbs, briny finish
define: pigato
lesser grown white grape of Liguria; similar to vermentino, but more intense, perfumed & biting on finish
best area for vermentino in Liguria
Potente - inland towns around Imperia
best red wine of Liguria
Rossese di Dolceaqua DOC
define: batteria
solera-type system for Aceto Artigianala di Modena e di Reggio
Lambrusco DOCs for Emilia-Romagna
Reggiano - quality leader
Lambrusco Grasparosso di Castelvetro - most full bodied
Lambrusco di Sorbara - elegant styles
what type of wines are produced in the Colli Piacentini
sparklers from chardonnay & pinot made in mèthode champenoise
- Emilia-Romagna
1st DOCG
Albana di Romagna
define: pagadebit
Emilia-Romagnian synonym for bombino bianco - piercing acidity and chalkiness
most white wine from Emilia-Romagna is bottled as
define: gutturnio
bonarda (croatina) & barbera blend in Emilia-Romagna
prime area in Emilia-Romagna for sangiovese
south of Via Emilia, from Bologna to Adriatic
1st DOC
Vernaccia di San Gimignano
quality areas for trebbiano toscano
Montescudaio & Montecarlo DOCs
white, coastal grape of Toscana
genetic parents of sangiovese
ciliegiolo & calabrese montenuova
2 main strands of sangiovese
large berries - sangiovese gosso - prugnolo gentile & brunello
small berries - sangiovetto - Chianti
1716 - Cosimo III de Medici
delimited production of Chianti to 4 communes: Greve, Radda, Gaiole & Castellina
importance of Bettino Ricasoli
1870's - devises chianti "recipe": base of sangiovese, softening canaiolo, white grapes for "fresher wines"
7 subzones of Chianti
Colli Aretini, Colli Fiorentini, Colli Sinesi, Colline Pisane, Montalbano, Rufina, Montispertoli
traditional, straw-covered chianti bottle
un fiasco
briefly outline changes in Chianti wine laws in 1984 & 1996
1984 - elevation to DOCG status; min white grapes down to 2%, 10% foreign varieties allowed
1996 - no min for white grapes, up to 15% foreign varieties allowed, tighter yield restrictions
describe "Chianti Classico 2000"
consorzio project started in '89 to identify sangiovese clones with thicker skins, higher anthocyanins & sparser grape clusters; put 4 clones on market in 2001
which grapes are allowed for Brunello di Montalcino DOCG
100% Sangiovese
which ripens first: Brunello, Chianti or Vino Nobile
aging for Brunello
min 4yrs
aging requirements for Vino Nobile di Montepulciano
Rosso di Montalcino
declassified Brunello; meant to be drunk younger
who is credited with the discovery of the Brunello clone
Clemente Santi in 1840's
founded Biondi-Santi in 1888
grapes other than sangiovese in Vino Nobile di Montepulciano
can be 100% sangiovese;
allowance of up to 20% canaiolo & 10% white varieties
describe aspect and land of Vino Nobile di Montepulciano
more sand & alluvial soil
more sunlight due to less pitch in hillsides
formula for Carmignano DOCG
min 50% sangiovese, up to 20% canaiolo, 10-20% cabernets franc & sauvignon, 10% white grapes & 10% others - necessarily wide range of styles
best regarded non-classico zone; northern limit of sangiovese production;
cool vineyard sites=sharp, angular chiantis
year Bolgheri DOC is created
first vintage of Ornellaia
1985 - Lodovico Antinori (brother of Piero)
grapes of the southern Maremma
international varieties with more blending of ciliegiolo & alicante (grenache)
define: "occhio di pernice"
eye of the partridge - rare, rose-colored , Tuscan vin santo made from 1/3 white and 2/3 red grapes
grapes for Tuscan Vin Santo
malvasia, trebbiano, sometimes grechetto
aging requirements for Tuscan Vin Santo
3yrs in small oak or chestnut casks with no topping up
DOCGs of Umbria
Montefalco Sagratino & Torgiano Rosso Riserva
Orvieto DOCG
70% of Umbrian DOC wine;
40-60% trebbiano, 15-25% verdello, remainder is mix including grechetto, canaiolo bianco (drupeggio), malvasia toscana & others
Montefalco Sagratino vs. Montefalco Rosso
Rosso based on sangiovese;
Sagratino - 100% Sagratino - dark, sappy, tannic, blackberry jam to pine tar
effect of Tiber river on Umbrian wines
funnels moderating, warm breezes north from mediteranean
Umbrian wine consultant advocating international varieties and styles
Riccardo Cotarella
vini dolci di Umbria
Orvieto - botryticized white - traditional drink of vacationing popes
Montefalco - passito di Sagrantino: blackberry & liquid milk chocolate
DOCGs of Le Marche
Rosso Cònero Riserva & Vernaccia di Sarrapetrona
red grape of Le Marche
what are brancame & maceratino
obscure white grapes found in Le Marche
50% of all DOC wine in Le Marche is what
Verdicchio dei Castelli di Jesi DOC
- limestone & mineral-rich clay
- located b/t Adriatic & Appennines
Est!Est!!Est!!! di Montefiascone is found in which region and is based by which grape
Lazio - min 65% trebbiano
best white wines of Lazio are from
Alban Hills
define: cesanese
spicy, red grape of Lazio; often plended with international varieties
DOCG of Abruzzo
Montepulciano d'Abruzzo Colline Teramane
define: cerasuolo
rosé made from Montepulciano d'Abruzzo
- hearty rosati with strawberry, dried cherry, orange peel & cinnamon flavors
DOCGs of Campania
Taurasi, Fiano di Avellino, Greco di Tufo
greco family of grapes is probably the progenitor of what other modern varietals
trebbiano, verdicchio & garganega
grapes and aging of Taurasi DOCG
aglianico with small amounts of piedirosso
- min 3yr aging, 1yr in oak
define: Irpina
collection of towns around Avellino - excellent source of greco, fiano and aglianico
coastal grape of Campania
Falanghina - usually blended
flavor profile of aglianico
saddle leather, tea leaves, cigar box, black fruits
best source of aglianico in Campania outside of Taurasi
Taburno DOC - north of Irpina
define: alberello
ancient method of vine training to stake; "bush vine"; still used in parts of southern Italy & Sardegna
vini rosati di Puglia are made from what grapes
negroamaro & primitivo
- excellent pairing for brodotti
define: uva di troia
aromatic, deeply colored grape found in northern Puglia; best exemplified in Castel del Monte DOC where it is sometimes blended with negroamaro or montepulciano
best area for primitivo
Primitivo di Manduria DOC
negroamaro profile
thick skinned, tough and tannic, black licorice flavors; often blended with malvasia nera
Locorotondo & Marina Franca DOCs are based on which grape
flinty verdeca - Puglia
soils of Puglia
flattest region of Italy - consistent mixture of terra rossa & limestone
base grape of Falernum
define: gròtte
caves in Basilicata excavated by Albanian refugees in 15th cen.
DOCs of Basilicata
Aglianico del Vulture & Terra dell'Alta Val d'Agri
Aglianico del Vulture DOCG
100% aglianico
high altitude & steep slopes + southern heat = cool nights & good drainage + power

late harvest - not till late October/early November
white wine of Cirò DOC
greco - here called greco bianco; often blended with trebbiano, malvasia bianca
- Calabria
define: gagliopo
thick skinned, yet not tannic grape from Cirò DOC in Calabria
- wild berry jam with tart finish
define: Greco di Bianco
appassimento-style wine from Bianco at the tip of the boot
white grapes planted in Sicilia
catarratto bianco (60% of all plantings), inzolia (aka ansonica), grecanico, chardonnay. sauvignon blanc, müller-thurgau
best example of catarratto bianco
base grape for Alcamo DOC
primary roles of Catarratto bianco
blender in Marsala & staple of vermouth
other red grapes of Sicilia
nerello mascalese & frappato
synonym for nero d'avola
Sicilian IGT whites tend to be what
big, tropical, oaky chardonnays
grapes and colors of Marsala
oro & ambra - grillo, catarratto, inzolia & damaschino
rubino - perricone, nero d'avola, nerello mascalese + some whites
aging requirements of Marsala
Fine - 1yr, not necessarily in wood
Superiore - min 2yrs in wood, 4yrs for Superiore Riserva
Vergine/Soleras - min 5yrs in wood, 10yrs for stravecchio or riserva
define: Malvasia delle Lipari
naturally sweet & fruity wine from islands of Lipari & Salina off northern Sicilian coast
define: Zibibbo
moscato bianco found on the Island of Pantelleria; appassimento-style
predominant white grape of Sardegna
Vermentino - best exemplified in Vermentino di Gallura DOCG
define: scirocco
hot breeze originating on the African continent influencing Sicilia & Sardegna
other white grapes of Sardegna
nuragus - think albariño
torbato - known as tourbat in France
define: monica
light, tart, high-acid red with cherry-berry flavors grown around Caglieri
3 subzones of Cannonau di Sardegna
Oliena, Jerzo, Capo Ferrato
where is carignano planted in Italy
hot, sandy SW of Sardegna
define: Vernaccia di Oristano DOC
- sherry-style wines from Sardegna (flor present)
- barrels not topped off
- no relation to vernaccia of Toscana