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58 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
In the 1800's, French biologist Pierre Flourens and Surgeon Paul Broca conducted research that demonstrated a connection between
The Mind and the Brain
What was the subject of the famous experiment conducted by Hermann von Helmholtz?
Reaction Time
Wilhelm Wundt is credited with
The founding of psychology as a scientific discipline
Wundt and his students sought to analyze the basic elements that constituted the mind, an approach called
William James and ________ Helped establish functionalism as a major school of psychology thought in North America
G. Stanley Hall
The functional approach to psychology was inspired by
Darwin's "On the origin of species by means of Natural Selection"
To understand human behavior, French physicians Jean-Martin Charcot and Pierre Janet studied people
With psychological disorders
Building on the work of Charcot and Janet, Sigmund Freud developed
Psychoanalytical Theory
Behaviorism involves the study of
Observable actions and responses
The experiment od Ivan Pavlov and John Watson centered on
Stimulus and response
Who developed the concept of reinforcement
B.F. Skinner
The study of mental processes such as perception and memory is called
Cognitive Psychology
The use of scanning techniques to observe the brain in action and to see which parts are involved in which operations helped the development of
Cognitive Neuroscience
Central to evolutionary psychology is the ____ function that minds and brains serve
Social psychology most differs from other psychological approaches in its emphasis on
Human interaction
The belief that accurate knowledge can be acquired through observation is
Which of the following is the best definition of a hypothesis?
A falsifiable prediction
The methods of psychological investigations take _____ into account because when people know they are being studied, they don't always behave as they otherwise would.
When a measure produces the same measurement whenever it is used to measure the same thing, it is said to have
Aspects of an observational setting that causes people to behave as they think they should are called
Demand Characteristics
In a double-blind observation
The purpose is hidden from both the observer and the person being observed
Which of the following describes the average value of all the measurements in a particular distribution?
What does a correlation coefficient show
The direction and strength of a correlation
When two variables are correlated, what keeps us from concluding that one is the cause and the other is the effect?
The possibility of a third-variable correlation
A researcher administers a questionnaire concerning attitudes towards global warming to people of both genders and of all ages who live all across the country. The dependent variable in the study is the _____ of the participants
Attitudes towards global warming
The characteristic of an experiment that allows conclusions about causal relationships to be drawn is called
Internal Validity
An experiment that operationally defines variables in a realistic way is said to be
externally valid
What are psychologists ethically required to do when reporting research results?
1. Report findings truthfully
2. Share credit for research
3. Make data available for further research
What is not a function of a neuron?
Nutritional Provision
Signals from the neurons are received and relayed to the cell body by
Sifnals are transmitted from one neuron to another
Across a synapse
Which type of neuron receives information from the external world and conveys this information to the brain via the spinal cord?
Sensory neuron
An electric signal that is conducted along the length of a neurons axon to the synapse is called
an action potential
The chemicals that transmit information across the synapse to a receiving neuron's dendrites are called
The __________ automatically controls the organs of the body
Autonomic nervous system
Which part of the hindbrain coordinated fine motor skills?
The cerebellum
What part of the brain is involved in movement and arousal?
The midbrain
The ______ regulates body temperature, hunger, thirst, and sexual behavior
What explains the apparent beneficial effects of cardiovascular exercise on aspects of brain function and cognitive performance?
Neuron Plasticity
During the course of embryonic brain growth, the ______ undergoes the greatest development
Cerebral cortex
The first true CNS appeared in
Genes set the ________ in populations within a given environment
Range of variation
Identifying the brain areas that are involved in specific types of motor, cognitive, or emotional processing is best achieved through
Brain imaging
Sensation involves _____, while perception involves ________.
Stimulation, interpretation
What process converts physical signals from the environment into neural signals carried by sensory neurons into the CNS
The smallest intensity needed to just barely detect a stimulus is called
Absolute threshold
The world of light outside the body is linked to the world of vision inside the CNS by the
Light striking the retina, causing a specific pattern of response in the three cone types, leads to our ability to see
In which part of the brain is primary visual cortex. where encoded information is systematically mapped into a representation of the visual scene
Area V1
Out ability to visually combine details so that we perceive unified objects is explained by
Feature integration theory
The idea that specialized brain areas represent particular classes of objects is
The modular view
The principle of ____________ holds that even as sensory signals change, perception remains consistent
Perceptual constancy
Image-based and parts-based theories both involve the problem of
Object identification
What kind of cues are relative size and linear perspective
What does the frequency of a sound wave determine
The placement of our ears on opposite sides of the head is crucial to our ability to
Localie sound sources
The location and type of pain we experience is indicated by signals sent to
the somatosensory cortex
What best explains why smells can have immediate and powerful effects
The involvement in smell of brain centers for emotions and memories