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312 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Herbert Hoover
-1929, Herbert Hoover becomes president
-he was an administrator during WWI (food production/distribution)
-Secretary of commerce for Coolidge (mid 20’s)
-expectation that this period of enormous growth in the U.S. will continue growing
October 29: Wallstreet Nightmare
-in the 1920’s there is enormous speculation on Stocks
-experienced traders get out of the stock market as soon as they realize what’s going on and then there is a ripple effect…stock prices continue to go down
-stock market crashes (October, 1929) = major event that helps usher in the Great Depression
“trading on the margin”
-people are “trading on the margin” = borrow money to buy stocks with the expectation that as the stock price rises you sell the stock, pay back loan and still have profit.
-lots of stock trade abroad as well
-stocks are hugely inflated (not corresponding to worth of stocks)
Economic Problems during the 1920's
-underlying social unrest of the 1920’s: there is a lot of unequal distribution of wealth and prosperity (elites and poor)
-overproduction and under consumption = imbalance
-international tariff war
-expansion of availability of easy credit
U.S. government response to crash + Europe's response
-response of the U.S. government to the stock market crash = ripple effect on American economy (banks, farms, etc close) = congress reacts by putting in more protectionism (expand tariffs to protect American jobs)
=> Hawley Smoot Tariff = 60% tariff
-Other countries begin to do the same thing and this causes a decline in world trade on a grand scale.
The Breakup of the International Economic System
-as other countries reciprocate this exacerbates the problem
What Britain does in response to U.S. tariffs/depression
-the British institute a system of Imperial Preference = tariff wall around the entire empire = expected to help them recover.
-this essentially makes Britain a closed economic bloc
French and German response
-The French institute a system of Imperial Preference
-The Germans do the same thing
-Crystallization of economic blocs – goods don’t come in or out
= all aspects of International Trade comes to a halt/dwindle to nothing
Gold Standard and Currency blocs
-Gold standard collapses
-Currency blocs = only use domestic currency for trade, other currency can’t be used.
The Hoover Moratorium, 1930-1931
-June 21, 1931 Hoover calls for a 1 year moratorium = leaves reparation payments alone (interest still accumulates).
Presidential Election 1932 & conditions at the time
-1932 Hoover loses election to Franklin Delano Roosevelt (huge loss).
-When FDR comes to office the unemployment rate is at 25%
-bankruptcy/banks are closing and people lose money
-Increasing social unrest – people get agitated
-communism and fascism becomes a much more appealing alternative to liberal democracy
-no social services/welfare/security available = when you lose your money and job you’re on your own.
FDR's motto
”relief, recovery and reform”
Roosevelt’s New Deal
= social, economic and political reform
New Deal: 1) Bank Holidays
- Bank Holidays (1933) = closes the banks = stops people from going in and withdrawing all of their money. Stabilizing effect – by the time banks re-open the FDIC is created.
New Deal: 2) FDIC
- FDIC (1933) = Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation = ensures deposits by federal government = stabilizing banking situation.
New Deal: 3) Civilian Conservation Corps
- Civilian Conservation Corps (1933) = Federal Government creates jobs for people = people can buy things and get economy moving
New Deal: 4) The National Industrial Recovery Act
- The National Industrial Recovery Act (1933) = regulate prices, wages, relations between businesses, workers, and unions = eventually overturned by Supreme court (done often).
New Deal: 5) Tennessee Valley Authority
Tennessee Valley Authority (1933) = electricity to all for affordable price, controlled Tennessee flooding, improved navigation
New Deal: 6) The Works Progress Admnistration
- The Works Progress Administration (1935) = Federal Government creates jobs for people = people can buy things and get economy moving
New Deal: 7) Social Security
- Social Security (1935) = social security, welfare, and a safety net for people.
FDR is willing
to deficit spend.
The Effects of the Depression in Europe: US involvement
- The U.S. had been underwriting the European Economy
- Had to pull out of there completely
- Situation continues to deteriorate
The Effects of the Depression in Europe: Hoover Moratorium
- Bank in Austria closes and they approach Germany to create an economic union – French say no way, too big of a threat = continuing animosity.
- Roosevelt tries to get the Europeans to reduce tariffs – doesn’t happen.
- 1 Year Hoover Moratorium becomes a permanent moratorium because power default on their payments
- Depression is so intense and deep they cant pay back loans and reparations.
The Effects of the Depression in Europe: US response to no reparation payments
- By 1934, Hiram Johnson (US Senate) passes an act in the Senate that says no American whatsoever can lend money to Europe = Johnson Act (result of default).
The Effects of the Depresison in Europe: Germany
- Problem: Germany begins to rearm during the 1930’s and the Europeans don’t have the funds to do likewise.
The Effects of the Depression worldwide
=> Incredibly difficult situation (New Deal doesn’t really help) in the United States
- Fascism and Communism become much more appealing to people (even in the U.S.)
Heinrich Bruning
(1930-1933) Elected to power
-Hindenburg is still president but power lies in chancelor (Bruning)
-Bruning Tries to get Germany out of the depression
Bruning's measures to take Germany out of depression: 1) Inflation
-brings on deflation to lower prices of German goods to make them more competitive internationally
-increases taxes, reduces government spending and tries to encourage no consumerism.
= negative consequences: no jobs and standard of living goes down.
The Reichstag and Bruning
-German parliament
-starting to turn against Bruning
-he ignores them.
-Bruning Hindenburg to pass an emergency decree allowing him to rule w/o parliament.
-> Beginning of authoritarianism in germany.
Dissolve Parliament and the consequences
1932 - He dissolves the parliament and calls for new election
-> backfires = in new election the number of communists rises and there is a rise in Nazi party deputees (12 to 107)
Nazi rise to power in the Reichstag
By 1932, the Nazi party is the 2nd largest party in the Reichstage -> increased power in a legal way.
-nothing anyone can do.
The Collapse of the Versailles Treaty by Germany
-Bruning's foreign policy looks to over throw the Versailles Treaty.
-after the Hoover Moratorium Germany also refuses to pay reparations (1931) = violation of the Versailles treaty.
-Bruning pushes for rearming (demands this right)
The Rise of Hitler: Bye bye Bruning
-by 1932 the Depression has grown
-Bruning is forced from position.
The Rise of Hitler: elections
1932, July - 2nd round of elections, Nazi Party 107 to 230 seats.
-January 30, 1933 - Hindenburg asks Hitler to form a government and become chancellor.
- all legal
The Rise of Hitler: Hindenburg asks Hitler b/c
-Nazi party is the largest party in the reichstag
-elites think they can control hitler/they think they can manipulate him
-industrialists support him because he suppresses communists
-banks are paying for the Nazi campaign
= he can be controlled and manipulated
Hitler's History:
-born in Austria, 1889
-father dies when he's 13, mother is dead
-gets government grant and lives off of this (hes an orphan)
-moves to Vienna then Munich
-wants to be a painter but drops out of school
-War breaks out in 1914 and he joines the german army
-heroic figure - messenger, shot in leg, wins 2 crosses.
-1918 blinded/injured by a gas attack
Hitlers History: galvanized
1919 he hears about armistice and this galvanizes his political beliefs
-german army is stabbed in the back
-social democrats are responsible
-hitler doesnt like the versailles treaty, Paris Peace conference or the armistice
Hitlers History: Germans Workers Party
-works for military intelligence, joins paramilitary force
-gets involved with German Worker Party - takes over fast/his rhetoric isnt new
-1921 he renames it = Nationalist Socialist German Workers Party = Nazi (nationalist party)
Hitlers History: Rise to power
-early 1920's hes very insignificant
-works on gaining power and popularity
-1923 Munich Beer Hall Putsch = Lendendorf and Hitler tyr to take over government and are arrested and put in prison
-while in prison hitler writes Mein Kampf, 1925
Mein Kampf
-help from his assistant, Heff
-lays out Hitlers vision for germany
-3 key theories: lebenstraum, geopolitics, racial theory
Mein Kampf: 1) Lebenstraum
= living space
-comes from Thomas Malfus (1798) = argues population growth will outstrip the food supply = disease, unrest, famine and war
-Hitler applies these ideas to Germany
=Germany needs more living space
-sees other countries have unlimited space (Russia/US/GB)
-> Germany needs to expand eastward into contigous land.
Mein Kampf: 2) Geopolitics
-Mackinder, control heartland = control world
-Hitler wants to gain control and expand eastward so he can control the world.
-believes germany is surrounded by hostile countries
-stuck in the center with no outlet.
Mein Kampf: 3) Racial Theory
-strong aspect
-tapping into existing theories/views
-applies it to Hitler's lebenstraum in east (slavs/jews are inferior)
-germans are superior race
-land in the east is predominantly jewish, and hitler sees the jews as a race
-get rid of people because its german territory (picks up ideas in vienna and sees what other powers did to natives)
1933 Hitler
Hitler becomes chancellor and tries to make all of germany a 1 party state = Nazi
-destroys communist party thru brute force and pushing them out of election.
-S.S = paramilitary
-gets rid of social democrats
Reichstag Fire, February 1933
= seen as a communist conspiracy
-find a dutch communist within the fire, Marinus Van der Lubbe = scapegoat
-lucky break for nazis giving them a pretext
Reichstag Fire: Hitlers response
-takes a dictatorial authoritarian position
-asks Hindenburg to suspend the Weimar Constitution because of threaty
-gets the enabling act = allows Hitler to rule by decree and dictate legislation by himself (renewed every 4 years)
=authoritarian rule begins, not much attention paid to Hitler until 1935
1935: Hitlers rearmament
Hitler announces to Reichstag that Germany is goign to rearm unilaterally
-conscription: army of 550,000, build navy and air force
= world responds with condemnation but dont do anything about it.
-Hitler uses League rhetoric = "whyshould we disarm if you dont?"
1936 distraction
Other powers are distracted in 1936
-Spanish-Civil War
-Italy's Invasion of Abysinia (Ethiopia)
Spanish Civil War, 1936
-Spain becomes a republic in 1931
-since then there is conflict over who will dominate
-run by moderate catholic party til 1936.
-1936 popular front wins control (oppose fascism, response to Stalin/Mussolini)
-all groups work together (communists, democrats, etc)
Spanish Civil War: Popular front outrage
Popular front comes to power and causes outrage to the nationalists (no elite/church power) = huge threat
-Spanish military revolts led by Gernal Francisco Franco (he's in spanish morocco) = army coup, navy isnt involved.
Gernal Francisco Franco
-Franco calls Hitler for help getting from Morocco to Spain
-Hitler obliges because Franco is a fascist
-helps move nationalist forces and Hitler and Mussolini send troops and planes (volunteers = good test for air force)
Ideological battle
=stark ideological battle between fasicsm vs. popular front government (repubs, liberals, democrats, socialists)
Guernica attack = Hitler terror bombs spanish cities = this has not been seen before
-capitalizing moement for people - seen as an outrage
Spanish Civil War: World intervention
-US and Gb wont get involved
-League does nothing
-many countries leave the league
-Spain isnt important, its peripheral
-Britain is in the midst of appeasement (dont want S.U. to intervene and dont want to antagonize Italy and Germany)
Soviet Union help
-Stalin supplies the popular front w/ supplies because he knows what the fascists are interested in.
-Soviets lead international brigades - volunteers fighting for republicans (not necessarily soviet supporters)
-Stalin fosters suspicion between groups, wants this to be a communist movement.
1939 nationalist party victory
Franco wins and takes control
The End of Collective Security: Abysinia
-Italy really wants Abysinia
-Mussolini wants this colony and surround it with 2 colonies
-Mussolini engineers a border struggle allowing Italy to come in
-1 sided fight - have all the new technology and equipment (testing ground)
Abysinia, emporer
-emporor of Abysinia is Haile Sellassie
-goes to the league and gives speech for help (this is about all nations of the world)
-league does nothing
Abysinia, League Intervention and invasion
-League puts useless sanctions on Italy
-should've pout it on oil and should've colosed the Suez Canal
= ends of league
= dont want to act too extremely to antagonize germany and italy

=> Invasion of Abysinia in 1935.
The Formation of the Axis: the axis pact
-these past events strengthen the relations between Italy and Germany.
-Axis Pact, 1936 (Italy and Germany)
The Formation of the Axis: other pacts
-Anti-Communist Intern pact directed at teh Soviet Union in 1936 (Germany Japan and Italy in 1937)
-Pact of Steel 1939 = alliance is stronger (germany and italy(
-Tripartite Pact 1940 (Germany, Italy and Japan) - anti communist
-italy leaves league
1930's appeasement didnt have bad connotations, it was considered diplomacy.
Sources for British and French appeasement: 1) trauma
-traumatic effect/memories of WWI
-nobody was untouched
-war had an enormous impact
-nobody wants another war
Sources for British and French appeasement: 2) guilt about versailles
-esp in britain
-germans were treated too harsley
-cont thru 20's and 30s
-germany has a right to what its doing
-Hitler uses national self determination to justify what he's doing (turns V. treaty on its head, until 1939)
Sources for British and French appeasement: 3) Anti Communism
-Hitler is anti-communist and manipulates this
-GB and France are too
-Fascism is a new appealing force
Sources for British and French appeasement: 4) Awe at Germany's Achievements
-the way Hitler turns Germany around
-he's onto something
-fascism is dynamic and exciting
-we need to accomodate to Hitler
-Support from King Edward VIII and David Lloyd George
German Revisions of Versailles Treaty: 1) Rearm
1) March 1935 Hitler rearms
German Revisions of Versailles Treaty: 2)Anglo-German naval agreement
2) June 1935 Anglo-German naval agreement (german navy cant be bigger than 1/3 GB army)
German Revisions of Versailles Treaty: 3) Rhineland
3) March 7 1936, remilitarization of the rhineland
-symbolic test = small march
-nobody does anythign so he remilitarizes
-not a flagrant violantion of teh Lacarno pact
-self determination
-emboldens hitler and sends terrible message to newly constructed countries
-builds a "seigfried line" = massive system of fortification = impossible for France to invade Germany and protect the allies.
German Revisions of Versailles Treaty: 4) Anschluss
4) March 12, 1938 - Anschluss with Austria
-Austria is predominantly German
-Austria wants to be apart of Germany and allies dont like this
-wants nazi party powerful in austria
-austrian government refuses but in 1938 - pressure mounts and germany is going to invade
-Austrian prime minister, Von Schussnig is summed to Germany
-goes back to Austria and blindsides Hitler (wants people to vote for their govt)
-> Hitler is pissed and mobilizes against them
-Schussnig allows him into Austria
-Germany comes in and is unopposed.
issues with the Czech
-Czech is in the calws of germany
-defense is against Germany not austria
-sudetenland = 3.5 million german speakers = apart of Czech given to them during PP conference
-National self determination is resisted by the Czech
-Hitler hints hes going to mobilize
-Nevel Chamberlain = British Prime minister keeps butting in - doesnt want war.
-FDR intervenes - last effort sept 1938
German Revisions of Versailles Treaty: 5) Munich Agreement
September 1938
-all german speaking territory in czech transferred to Germany (Sudetenland, South Czech and Tesh)
-Poland recieves Teschen
-S. Slovakia annexed to hungary
-Chamberlain declares peace in our time!
-Hitler outright attacks the Czechs - never done before, pretenses are off
-Hitler annxes half of Czech (Bohemia, Moravia)
-Chamberlain and the French Prime Minister realize that appeasement isnt working
-appeasement ends
Hitlers non stop efforts
Nonstop efforts to undermine and overturn the versailles treaty
German economy
german economy has recovered because of the dawes plan, prosperous democracies, and the weimar republic stablized
Anti democracy
undercurrent of anti democracy
-hindenburg, 1925
-people want an autocratic state to return (imperial)
-military leaders
Great Depression
sends it over the end
removes the US from undermining the European economy
The Interamerican Region
-change in relationship between U.S. and Latin America in the 30's
-begins during Coolidge 20's
-increasing resentment -> looking to change administration
-right to intervene = Monroe Doctrine and Roosevelt Collary
-Coolidge and Hoover preserve U.S. economic relationship -> needs to change
J. Rubin Clark
1928 J Rubin Clark (assistant secretary of state) reviews policy
-Clark Memorandum = argues that teh U.S. doesnt have the right to intervene as it has been (esp. Militarily)
-doesnt change teh Monroe Doctrine (directed at Europe)
-criticizes the Roosevelt Corollary (directed at LA)
Clark Memorandum
-repudiated the Corollary
-revised american policy toward latin america
-nothing really changes until 1933 when Roosevelt comes to office
Japan embarassment
-US is changing policy because its becoming an international embarassment because Japan is belligerant towards China and is using U.S. tactics and justifications to justify what they're doing throughout the 1930s
1933 Roosevelt President
-inaugural address = changes in relations
= the good neighbor policy 1933 (term used by Hoover, but Roosevelt makes changes)
FDR speech in front of Latin American Union
1) Withdraw all troops from LA and Caribean, no more deployment of marines (exception in Guantalamo Bay and Panama Canal - own both)
2) 1934 Roosevelt repeals the Platt amendment from Cuba (no right to intervene)

=> Major Shift
-U.S. in LA doesnt stop - continues under different guises.
U.S. Marines were there from 1912-1924 then came back in 1927.
-Cesar Augusto Sandino = creates paramilitary force to fight U.S. and supporters are the elites = guerilla war.
-U.S. troops leave in 1933 and Sandino no longer has an enemy
Sandino meets with President
-Sandino arranges to meet with President Juan Baptista Sacasa = declares amnest for Sandino and forces as long as Sandino pledges loyalty to government, disbans forces
-also allowed to set up an agricultural cooperative in N. Nicaragua
-Sandino does this - as U.S. marines leave there is a fear that this will create more unrest in Nicaragua.
-so the US set up a national guard (nicaraguans) to maintain stability w/o US presence
Nicaraguan National Guard
-General Antonio Samoza Garcia put in charge of guard
= used to increase his own personal power in Nicaragua
-Sandino is not happy and sees him as a US puppet.
-1934 Sandino travels to managua to meet w/ samoza
Sandino and Samoza meet
-When Sandino arrives he and his men are kidnapped and killed.
-Somoza consolidates power and in 1936 he takes over Presidency and remains in power until his death in 1956.
-runs Nicaragua as a dictator
= staunch ally of the U.S. working for their interests
US w/ Nicaragua
-US gets the stability and order they wanted and a strong ally
-neo-imperialism = work thru other people
-"he's a son of a bitch, but he's our son of a bitch"
-FDR is worried about axis subversion in LA (german and italian) -> thinks immigrants are agents.
-having a dictator will not allow this and europeans cant intervene at all
leader = Fulgencio Batista Ceases power in military in 1933-1959 (overthrown by castro), dictator
-welcomes U.S. interests in Cuba, esp in sugar
Dominican Republic
leader = Rafael Trujillo comes to power thru coup in 1933
-does all things US wants to keep out threats
Cuba and Dominican Republic
-national guard
-allies w/ the US
-done thru leaders and economic ties as the main trading partern w/ LA (replaced Germany)
FDR and Cordell Hull
-FDR knwos the best way to come out of depression is thru international trade
-Cordell Hull (secretary of state) agrees, thinks it will help end international conflict because of economic ties = end depression
-U.S is trying to get France and GB to bring down tariff barriers = doesnt work.
-turn to LA to seel goods
The Reciprocal Trade Agreements Act
US and LA negotiates reduction in tariff barriers agreements (Hull)
-step in righ direction - reduction in protectionism and tariffs
-bines LA and US together -> maintain and deepen US influence
Problem for LA
LA flaw in relationship = countries rely on a single commodity
-very vulnerable to fluctuations in market
-makes them reliant on supply and demand in the US
-US doesnt suffer from this
Mexico and the US
-1917 Mexican new consitution restricting foreign investment
-1918 - oil belongs to Mexico - no foreign ownership
-most are owned by US and GB
Wilson and Obregon Compromise
-Wilson and Obregon compromise = doesnt apply to old previsions only new.
-works good until 1937-1938
Tension in Mexico
because of labor dispute between Mexican laborers/unions and U.S and GB oil companies
-Mexican court rules in favor of laborers = outrage in US and GB
Lazaro Cardnas
Meixcan President, not friendly w/ the US
-announces that the Mexican government is going to nationalize these companies assets.
= distributors boycot mexican oil
= other countries (italy and germany) need oil -> they buy it in response to boycot
1941 US and GB reach a compromise = Mexico compensates for losses and U.S and GB buy Mexican oil
=Meixco has control over its own oil assets.
The European Threat and the Evolution of a Hemispheric Security System
-the war effects Western hemispheric security
-thru out 1930s efforts made to tie the US and LA together as threat in europe intensifies
-threat: axis subversion fears (spies)
The European Threat and the Evolution of a Hemispheric Security System: 1) Inter-American Conference
1936 - Inter-American Conference for the maintenance of Peace, Buenos Aires (Argentina)
-important: 1936 - Spanish Civil War and Hitler
=response to events in Europe
1) Inter-American Conference continued
indication of greater cooperation
-argentina wants it to be done thru the league - cont to bother the US
The European Threat and the evolution of a Hemispheric Security System: 2) Lima Conference
Peru, 1938
-Response to Europe: Munich conference, Ausslaus in Austria
-Declaration of Lima = pledge to cooperate w/ each other if theres any foreign intervention
-create a committe for consolidation
-argentina signs this
The European Threat and the evolution of a Hemispheric Security System: 2) Panama Conference
Sept to Oct 1939
1939 Hitler invades Poland
-create a neutral zone around the Western Hemisphere
-various agreements to tackle threat of axis subversion
The European Threat and the evolution of a Hemispheric Security System: 3) Havana Conference
July 1940
-Response: defeat of Holland and France
-both have colonies in the Western Hemisphere = fear they will be transferred to Germany
= no transfer revolution = no european country can transfer sovereignty to any other european power
= become indep or under tuteledge of another LA country
- an attack against 1 is an attack against all = total response
The European Threat and the evolution of a Hemispheric Security System: Multilaterization
Multilaterization of the Monroe Doctrine = everyone joines (Even LA)
-increased military cooperation and preparedness
-US identifies need in raw materials from LA and they get first dibs
The Soviet Union in the 1930's
1930 SU transforms itself from being weak to being an industrial power
-cost to people
-debts and costly
-before the war they were 1 of the primary exporters of grain (came from the Ukraine)
-WWI and Revolution destoryed SU agriculture
-thru 1920s bc of these events russia is in poor shape
-malnutrition, faminine (US food intervention)
-Bolshevik collectivization = people own nothing and its all collected and distributed (no incentive to work)
-Lenin's Hording - ended by Stalin
Stalin's crash program of economic modernization: machinery
massive shortage in agricultural machinery (collective famrs need lots of equipment)
-Stalin needs to buy foreign machinery and to get teh right currency he sells grain to the US then buys their machinery.
Collectivization in Industry
same thing is happening in industry
-Labor batallions = force people to work
Bolsheviks instill a strong sense of communism thru patriotism/loyalty to Russia
- get peasantry on board
Costs of Enormous Production: 1) Ukraine Famine
-surplus taken from Ukraine
-Stalin forces a policy of starvation on the Ukraine
-7 million die
-helps Stalin gets rid of the threat of Ukrainian national identity
Costs of Enormuos production: 2) Gulag Archipelago
forced labor camps for political enemies on a massive scale
Costs of enormous production: 3) Forced execution
of perceived enemies
costs of enormous production: imprisonment
of perceived enemies
End of Isolationism
-Stalin is threatened by Hitler because hes coming east and he knows wat he did to the German communist party
-1934 Massive SU change in foreign policy - looked outward, no more isolationism, League of Nations interest
Maxim Litvinov
pushes for LN membership, 1934 joins = collective security
-tries to convince others of threat
US recognizes SU
1934 the US recognizes SU
-concerned about hitler
-SU hopes for US help
Franco-Soviet Alliance
they were nemeies bc the tsars debts were repudiated = huge change because of Hitler threat
-great for both sides (2 front war returns)
Popular Front Strategy
-SU announces change in Communist party doctrine = communist party can work w/ any party thats anti-fascist
-popular front govt has to work w/ rearmament internally and prepare anti-fascist policies in every aspect
= pragmatic approach by Stalin to get Europe to stand up against Hitler (revive triple entente?)
Obstacles to Russias return to European System: 1) Memories of Brest-Litovsk
-Russia (communists) cant be trusted
Obstacles to Russias return to European System: 2) French financial claims
French has financial claims agianst SU (compensation)
-made alliance bc they feared Russian and German alliance
Obstacles to Russias return to European System: 3) Fear of Communism
Fear of communism in europe and us
Obstacles to Russias return to European System: 4) Problem of Poland
-reconstituted out of Russian empire
-fear that the SU are just as revisionist in that they want to overthrow the Versaille Treaty to get poland back
-Russian tension w Poland
Munich, Prague and the Quest for a new triple entente 1938-1939: Munich Conference
Stalin keeps pushing and europeans dont care if hitler is going east
-escaserbated by Munich conference and invasion of Czech = european countries cant be trusted
-Bc of continuing appeasement Stalin realizes europeans wont come aboard (As long as hitler is going east he'll get no support)
Munich, Prague and the Quest for a new triple entente 1938-1939: Invasion of Czech
Appeasement ends and try to approach Stalin to try to revive triple entente
-too late for Stalin, insulted by the low ranking officials who are sent to moscow
-Stalin realizes he needs to make a deal w/ Hitler
Munich, Prague and the Quest for a new triple entente 1938-1939: Europes deal w/ stalin
Poland is in the way of Germany and Russia
- if deal is made w/ GB and France Poland must allow Russian troops to come thru it - rejected
The Return to Brest-Litovsk: Rapallo: The Soviet-Nazi Pact
Max Lixtanov is fired bc hes a jew = message to hitler that the SU is ready to negotiate
-August 23, 1939 = SU and Germany make the Nazi-Soviet Non agression pact = 10 years
-security for stalin because he knows it wont last 10 years
-stalin had rid of his army because they were a threat = hes just buying time
-work out a secret agreement to divideup poland (germany=west, SU=east)
-Hitler doesnt have to fight a 2 front war
The Emergence of the Middle East 1919-1939
-the idea of a place called the middle east didnt exist until 1919
The Emergence of the Middle East 1919-1939: Ottoman Empire, the sick man of europe
-thru out the 19th century the Ottoman Empire declines = sick man of europe
-being pushed out of europe physically
-by 1914 the empire had shrunken dramatically
-being pushed out of north africa
-> by the great powers
-empire has been weakened by the war and the nationalist outbreak
-France doesnt want russia gaining land from the Ottomans.
-multi national empire = slavs/arabs/turks/africans = problematic
The Emergence of the Middle East 1919-1939: Leader
By the time of WWI the leader is Sultan Mehmed V (1901-1918)
-little formal power
Ottoman and German Alliance
-ally w/ Germans WWI because germans make an effort to get alliance prior to war (Economic efforts/staffing amry w/ germans/modernize them/germans are against the russians)
Mehmed as Caliph
Mehmed is also the caliph= he speaks for all Muslims (Islamic World)
-he can declare jihad (holy war)
-causes dissension bc theres lots of Muslims living int hese places (tactic)
-pretty ineffective, no response
Ottomans role in WWI
-play a minor role except for Gallipoli
-by 1917 GB is out of Gallipoli
-start a 2 prong assault from egypt to Jerusalem (significant holy land)
-General Edmund Allenby enters Jerusalem, Dec 1917 - symbolic victory, say in wahts to happen next
GB in Jersualem
@ same time GB is trying to sew dissent/nationalism/unrest in Ottoman empiore to weaken their war efforts
Lawrence of Arabia
- T.E. Lawrence (Lawrence of Arabia) - Colonel in army and archiologist = tries to get Arabs to fight turkish ottomans.
Sharif Hussein Bin Ali
Kind of the Heshemites (ruling tribe in arabian peninsula), works w/ Lawrence
- hes in control of the Hejaz (strip of Arabian peninsula)
Lawrence and Sharif Hussein Bin Ali
good to work w/ him beause he has 2 pros on his side
1) ruler of 2 most holy cities, Mecca and Medina = power in Islamic world
2) claims ancestry directly from Muhammed - Islamic prophet.
= speaks on behalf of Arabs
- Allies w/ GB and decalres himself the Calip and declares Jihad on the Ottomans.
Promise to Arabs
July 1915 to March 1916 negotations
-Sir Henry McMahon = high commissioner negotiates w/ Hussein to start revolt.
=> Promises:
1) british will help arabs create an independent Arab state after war ends if they rise against ottomans.
Zionist Movement
@ the same time GB is involved in the International Zionist movement led by Theodor Herzel (covered the Dreyfus Affiar in France)
-wrote book The Jewish State
-1897 chairs meeting of Int. Zionist Swtizerland.
-Zionists want Palestine/Israel bc its signficiant to them
Palestine is under Ottoman control
-approached sultan but he rejected it
-no need for jewish state, they could just live in ottoman empire - welcoming them.
-Approach GB - GB offers them Uganda = not keen on this (Uganda Plan)
Herzl Dies - new leader
Herzel dies in 1904 w/ Uganda plan
-after his death International Zionist Organization gets new leader = Dr. Chaim Weizmann (british jew)
Dr. Chaim Weizmann
est good links w/ Arthur Balfour (Foreign Secretary)
-does this because hes involved w/ war effort bc hes a chemistry professor
Zionist Palestine
British @ war w/ Ottomans -> Palestines a good idea and in British interest to help them establish this (strategic power/help protect Suez Canal)
Idea to foster British support - get American jews involved, foster resetnment by all jews to lands they're in.
-Sentimental notion about bible and israel
Balfour Declaration
Nov 2 1917 =
-est. Palestine as a Jewish homeland = not a state
-concerned about breeching right of those who are already there
-dont want this to be a reason to persecute jews anymore
-> British recognize it as a home.
-tension between what the British promised Arabs and Zionists
Sykes-Picot Agreement
1917, deal w/ French
-Begin carving up areas of middle east bc they think they'll win
-Palestine = international control
-Syria = a zone = french
-Iraq = b zone = british
- red zone = british
-blue zone = french control

= all these agreements are published before the war ends by the Bolsheviks - to undermine capitalist imperial power.
Paris Peace Conference: Prince Faisal, Zionists and Mandates
-Prince Faisal = Husseins son
-behalf of Arabs w/ Lawrence of Arabia
-Zionists were there too
-> plan to create mandates, LN controlled but French administered
-laregely bc wilson doesnt want to see people gain colonies from war of democracy
-a mandates = closest to self governing
=> 1920 - Conference in San Remo, Italy = Mandates officially drawn up
British Mandates
British Mandate of Palestine is big and its chopped up
-west = palestine
-east = transjordan
-write into mandate = balfour declaration into Palestine but not into transjordan
-1922 becomes official
French Mandates
have religious problems
-Lebanon = Christians vs. Muslims
-Prince Faisal is invited by Syria to become king of Syria before mandate is official
-french take him out by force/war
-kicked out and exiled to GB
1920's + 1930's Immigration tension
Jewish immigration is a source of tension for GB
-jews can immigrate to Palestine
- as time goes on the Jewish comunity creates a jewish society
Herbert Samuel
-wants to enforce Balfour
Mohammad Amin Al-Husseini
Mufti of Jerusalem (Islamic/Arab/Muslim leader) = pan arab ideal
- thorne in British side
2 Factions of Jewish Movement: 1) David Ben-Gurion
Leader of practical/labor zionism
2 Factions of Jewish Movement: 2) Smaller Group - Revisionist Zionism
Small group-revisionist zionism
-led by Vladimir Jabotinsky
-take what they can get by force
-more forceful assertion against arabs
Jewish immigration rises
-tension w/ arabs
-arabs have support all around
-Hitler exascerbates this in 1933 - allows German jews to go to Palestine
1933 = outbreaks of riots
The Great Uprising
1936 = riots, terrorism, fighting, robberies
-situation becomes untenable for GB so they look for a solution
-1936: worried about hitler
Royal Peel Commission Plan, 1937
-idea of making 2 separate states: Jewish and Arab states
-holy cities will be open to both - under GB rule (nobody is happy w/ this)
White Paper Policy
1939 - White Paper Policy statement by GB
-1 single secular state
-Balfour Decl. did what it had to
-restrict further immigration to 75,000 in next 5 years (1/3 of total population)
-any further immigration needs to be approved by Arabs
-> both sides reject this
-WWII breaks out and GB forget about Palestine
Drawing the Map of the Middle East: The Cairo Conference
-Winston Churchill (British Prime Minister)
-leads Arab "experts" to try to draw up borders in Cairo
-TE Lawrence = British rep
Gertrude Bell
-Gertrude Bell - influential w British and Hesshimites
-convinces Churchill that they need to make a system where it looks like they're running themselves
-Prince Faisal is made king of Iraw
-King Abdula (Husseins son) is king in transjordan
- British think this is a good idea
Faisal to Mesopotamia (Iraq)
-bell is his advisor
-Iraq =
-nationalist iraquiis = see fiasal as a british puppet, british support faisal completely
-GB is interested in oil - maintain control
Rebellion in Iraq
Rebellion breaks out in 1920s and continue on a low level thru out mandates
-gb uses bombs to control people
Problem: Border of Iraq
-Percy Cox = commissioner draws border
-draws border w/ Kuwait
-Kuwait = british protectorate
-blow to Iraq = Kuwait is apart of them and blocks access to persian gulf
Curd Minority
look for a separate state
-bc they're incorporated into syria, iraq and turkey
Iraq gets "Independence"
from GB in 1932
-GB remains involved
Abdullah in Transjordan
-given throne as reward for help in war
-same situation as iraq
-dependent on GB
-Abdullah is broad - wants a much larger pan-arab area
-seen as a puppet
-transjordan gets independence in 1946 and becomes jordan in 1949
-highly tied to GB
Saudi Arabia, 1932
2 forces want leadership
1) West Arabia - Sharif Hussain
2) Saud
Aziz Ibn Saud
-Wants arabian peninsula
-@ war until 1925
-1925 Saud defeats Hussein (Husseins sons couldnt help him-dont want tension)
-Until 1932 he tries to bring warring clans together
-1932 decalres teh state of Saudi Arabia
-lots of oil - attracts US interest
had been long independent
-before WWI Russia and GB are in conflict over Persia -> route to India and outlet to Persian gulf
1906 Anglo Russian Entente
-settle problem by dividing it into spheres
-north = russia
-middle = neutral (controlled by Reza Shah Pahlavi)
-south = british
Oil found in Persia
-middle stays neutral until oil is found by GB
-they want control so they go into neutral zone
-Pahlavi has complete control of Persia in 1925-becomes Shah w/ British Interests
-renames the country Iran
-cont to rely on British - run oil
-Anglo-Persian oil company formed
-britian becomes incrasingly predominant in Iran
-Mustafa Kemal-Ataturk
-Ottoman empire is still in existance until 1922-1923.
Treaty of Sev
=treaty w/ Ottoman Empire
-wanted to divide turkey up/as well as the rest of the empire
-assign spheres of influence = greek/italian/british/french
=> enormous resentment in Turkey.
Resentment in Turkey
-turkish nationalist movment led by Mustafa Kemal Ataturk = not pleased by treaty of Sev
-As greeks arrive to take West-Kemal attacks and war breaks out.
National Identity in turkey
-Kemal is pushing turkish national identity (not Ottoman identity)
-by 1922 hes thrown Greeks, Italians and French out
=forms modern day Turkey
Ataturk does..(modernization, official turkey)
-does away w/ vestiges of Ottoman empire -> modernization
-By Oct 1923 Ottoman empire is gone, and official Turkey exists.
Treaty of Lausanne
-Turkey refuses to sign treaty of Sev
-1923 Turkey is established
Kemal's ideals: Secular, westernized
-fosters turkish nationalism
-1922 last Sultan leaves
-1924 abolishes Caliphate (spiritual islamic leader) = secular, not islamic
-insists on secularity
-changes alphabet = westernized
-civil rights
-military modernization
-european orientation = turkey is apart of europe
The European War 39-41
-by mid 1939 Stalin concludes the British and French shouldnt be relied upon
-Nazi-Soviet Non-agression pact (1939)
-solves the threat of a 2 front war, hilter wants to go east, helps stalin bc troops are purged.
-Hitler and Soviet decide to divide Poland
Invasion of Poland
Sept 1. 1939 -Hitler uses pretext: Mistreatment of Germans in Danzig, Poland (Polish corridor).
-invades Poland Sept 1939 (had invaded Czech March, 1939).
= British pledge to defend Poland, France has an alliance w/ them (1921)
-offer German an ultimatum and on Sept. 3 1939 - French and GB declare war on germany
Hitler uses "lightning war" = tanks, planes, etc at a fast rate and then infantry
= effective
-Poles hold out for 2 weeks (1 million men = 1/2 mobilized)
Stuka Dive Bomber Planes
lead attacks and then tanks then infantry
Polish #s
1/2 million poles vs. 2 million german and italian
-Polish Cavalry 1939 = ineffective, horses vs. bombs
-british and french didnt come to help
-french are busy preparing for invasion at the maginot line.
Russians Join War
Russians join the war 2 weeks after invasion (800,000 men) -> Poland ceases to exist Sept 1939.
-The Balkans are annexed to SU
The Phony War
Nothing is happening, everyone is sitting around waiting
-Hitler wants to attack asap
-everyone is preparing for war bc hitler will attack spring 1940.
French Maginot Line (Phony War)
-french think trenchwarfare will be in place agian
-Maginot line is too short, not enough money
-think the forest is impassible and no line at the franco-belgium frontier
-germany is preparing along border, french is in defensive position.
Scandinavian Interlude
-in the mean time the British decide they can stop Hitler before he starts
-Scandenavia + Norway = plan a naval plan in Norway bc Germany isnt self suffient and bring iron ore from neutral Sweden thru Baltic sea (freezes during winter)
Sweden, Norway...
Sweden transports the ore to the Norweigan Port of Navic (In Norway) for germany
-Germans go thru Norweigan waters to get it, british want to end this.
Occupy Navic
GB occupies Navic and employs troops in Norway
= disaster, not secretive Hitler knows.
Hitler declares war on Norway and Denmark
-invades both on the same day
= pushes GB out and gets access to all needed raw materials and establish bases/ports along coast -> Threat to N. Britain and Scotland.
Chamberlain is booted
Chamberlain is booted by the Conservative party and is replaced by Wintston Churchill.
-very aggressive, becomes prime minister may 10 1940
May 10, 1940
Hitler invades France = assumed he'd repeat the Schlieffen plan
-Germany's plan =
-forces sent thru ardennes forest
-troops sent up to the Netherlands/and south
-> traps GB and French in N.France (end up in Port Dunkirk).
British Evacuation
-British begin operation to get all forces out - ferry off.
-all ships used to get them back to england.
-Hitler is assaulting them but doesnt make a great scale attack.
-Hitler doesnt want to go to war w/ GB, hes going to try to make a deal w/ them.
France: to fight or not to fight?
-France needs to decide whether to fight or make a deal.
Conflicting views (2)
1) Prime minister Paul Reynaud = wants to fight
2) Marshall Henri-Philippe Petain = wants to make a deal

-June 25, 1940= French sign an armistice w/ Germany (6 week war)
Result of Armistice
-French disarmed
-french fleet sent away
-pay in raw materials
-divide france into 2 parts
1) North = german occupation and control
2) south = france, govt based in Vichy - so france can cnot to control foreign position/possessions.
Vichy Government
Vichy government is the recognized govt in france = hitler can keep some diplomatic relations instead of completely taking over.
Vichy France Vs Free France
De Gaulle is in london and sets up a french government in exile = declares a free french govt.
-Vichy govt is recognized so hes up against this
-British arent fond of Vichy Govt -> attack and destroy french fleet bc they dont want hitler to take it over.
-vichy government is forced to pay germnay in raw materials and deport jews -> pain in ass, de gaulle gains popularity.
Hitler approaches GB w/ a deal
Hitler approaches GB w/ a deal -> not concered w/ GB's empire.
-Churchill rejects this and continues fighting
-1940 - Hitler plans an invasion of Britain
The Plan: The Battle of Britain, 1940
-Herman Goring in charge of German air force = needs superiority over GB -> bomb british air fields and aircraft construction centers
-Hitler accepts plan and waves of german air attacks - July to Sept 1940 -> pretty successful.
Change in plan
Sept to Dec tactics change = bomb british cities -> reprisal bc British attack on Berlin, Aug 1940 (which was a reprisal for attacking London)
-Germans terrorize civilian populations to put pressure on govt.
-doesnt work - churchill is able to galvanize british public.
British Radar screen
The British have a radar screen around britain (huge advtg).
-know when they're being attacked so they can save fuel/planes by only attacking when german planes are close
-> britain has better quality planes = huge advtg.

=> 1st defeat for Nazi's bc Hitler cant invade GB(stalemate)
America: Front Isolation to Intervention
-US is neutral
-neutrality acts = were made after spanish civil war + bc of wwi (congress doesnt want us in war).
Edward R Murrow
broadcasts from GB to the US
-roosevelt is sentimental
-GB sways public opinion
Loop hole in neutrality acts
= up to president to decide
-> Battle of Britain, 1940 US gives GB 50 bombers (got 10 bases in Western Hemisphere for 99 years for this trade).
March 1941 Lend Lease Act
repeals Neutrality acts and gives us the right to help beligerant countries (esp. SU and GB)
-> enormous aid to GB and SU (most isnt repaid)
Operation Barbarossa
Spring 1941 = Hitler invades SU (where real intentions are)
= 3 prong attack on SU
-3 million soldiers are attacking
-German forces dont meet that much resistance - Stalin Retreats = Dec 1941 terrible winter sets in and conditions are really bad.
The Pacific Region in the 30's
Japan is emerging as a strong power in the East.
A "Monroe Doctrine" for the Far East
-China is a threat and opportunity for Japan
-nationalist party led by Shek = threat
-Japan needs to attack before China gets too strong
-Mow Doctrine = Japanese Monroe Doctrine
Japan invades Manchuria
-they already control S. Manchuria railraod, finances, etc.
-Kwantung army = japanese army in manchuria have conflict w/ Shek army.
1931 Chinese damage railraod @ Mukden (S. Manchuria)
-> pretext for occupying forecefully in manchuria
=raw materials, arable land, population outlet.
-Claim that this will help keep bolshevism out of manchuria.
-Japanese work w/ manchurians who want to be indep.
New Country created..
= Manchukuo
-Emporer Puyi is put on throne (last emporer)
-Japanese puppet state
- by 1930 democratic push is over and military is in power
League of Nations
- Indication of aggression according to the League
-the League investigates and sends the Lytton Commission = file report about situation = Japanese are aggressors/violaters but Chinese govt is at fault.
-Japan gives 2 year notice about leaving the league (out in 1934).
=> League wont allow mail from manchukuo = totally useless.
U.S. response
-US isnt a member of leauge
-Hoover is furious and comdemn the Japanese.
-> Respond diplomatically w/ Henry Stimpton
Stimpton Doctrine
US will not recognize manchukuo and they wont recognize any state established by force.
The Sino-Japanese War 1937-1941
-consolidating power
-tension for shek
-undeclared war = pushes for power
nationalists vs. japanese during war
1932 - Shangahi - nationalists vs. Japanese -> testing europeans bc Shanghai was an international city.
-probing chinese until 1937 to see how europe will react
-1937 Incidient at the Marco Polo Bridge (China Proper) Japan soldiers vs nationalists => becomes a full scale war in sept 1937.
-war 1937-1945
-japanese forces push further and further down coast = gruesome and massacre upon chinese
The Two Chinas
1) Nationalist Government in Chunking in South (Shek/nationalists)
-Chinese communist party spread randomly thru china (1934 shek turns against them)
2) Chiang at Manchukuo
Mao and Communists
begin the long march to gather forces and make way to Yeanen = takes months to do this, hero among communists.
-once in Yeanen he changes tactics -> appeal to peasantry/poor (not working class) = effective.
-nationalists apeal to Americans (Shek uses wife Madam Shek to get US help, spoke english, college in us, christian) = face of china.
cant intervene because of neutrality acts but sends aid and money.
Retired Maj General Calire Lee Chenault
sent over to fight for china (fighter planes)
-volunteer help
-japanese get frustrated.
when france is occupied japan occupies north indochina
-> the US impose embargos on Japanese - scrap metal (1940).
-Japan not sure what to do next - running out of oil
Japanese are convinced they need self sufficiency: 1) Siberia
Invade siberia (attack SU) after Hitler had - advocated by army
Japanese are convinced they need self sufficiency: 2) Navy led
led by navy, want to go south, conquer all european colonies to get what they need = asian co-prosperity sphere -> free trade, Japan has access to all resources.
- this option wins out.
Non Agression pact w/ SU
April 1941, Sign a non aggression pact w/ SU -> no northern threat, head south.
take the rest of indochina
-July 1941 they take the rest of Indochina - US respond by oil embargo.
-discussion until winter 1941
Pearl Harbor
-go south = navy plays a huge role -> in order ot not expose navy from potential threat they attack pearl harbor.
- Dec. 7, 1941 = Attack on pearl harbor => prompts Roosevelt for a declaration of war.
-US has entered war so Germany declares war on US (no reason to do this)
-Japan starts their invasions (esp. GB colonies) and War begins w/ GB and the US.
The Failure of Operation Barbarossa
German invasion of Soviet Russia
-war expands considerably
-the soviet is crucial to Hitlers plan for living space in the east (Russia, Poland, Ukraine)
=largest military expedition in history (3,300 tanks, 2,000 bombers)
3 prong attack on:
North - leningrad
Middle - Moscow
South - Ukraine, Georgia (oil), Stalingrad (symbolic)
Soviets are surprised by the attack
Stalin had ignored warnings because 1) he didnt think hed break the pact after only 2 years 2) felt that the british were trying to trick him (germans tellt he Russians this is whats going on).
Hitlers claims for mobilizing
When hitler is mobilizing he claims hes moving to protect against British bombers and to trick the British into thinking they're attacking the Soviet.
Battle breaks out
Red army is a mess following the purges of teh 1930's (officer core is purged on massive scale).
-when battle breaks out Hitler makes enormous progress (Blitzkreig) = takes prisoners, gets 50% of SU industrial and agricultural land.
Germans haulted by winter.
-Stalin - Many on E. Frotier welcome Hitler because they dont like the Russians either.
-By Dec. 1941 - weather is so bad that the German army is haulted (dont take Moscow, Leningrad is under seige from 41-44).
-reason for hault: thought the campaign wouldnt last as long, german military doesnt have enough winter supplies.
-russians mobilized quicker than expected.
-blitzkrieg cant work in winter
-this campaign coincides w/ the Holocaust.
3 Phases against the racially inferior: 1) Deporting
1933-Winter 1941: Campaign of deporting as many as possible
-concentration camps = trans-shipment camps.
-SS used for communist threat
3 Phases against the racially inferior: 2) Extermination
After failure of Barbarossa = campaign to exterminate mass populations.
-Einsatzgrupper = elite German guards (SS) = responsible for going into new territories after troops move out and exterminating natives.
-individual execution = demoralizing for troops so they begin using a new method of mass killing (carbon monozide - then gas)
-by winter 1941 no jews allowed to leave.
3 Phases against the racially inferior: 3) Final Solution
Final solution to the jewish question
-holocaust and wholescale extermination
-death camps.
Reinhard Heydrich
SS officer put in charge
Wansee Conference
January 1942
-organize a large scale jewish extermination (many people-anyone who could help in effort)
-plan= deportation to concentration camp -> 1) forced labor/starvation, 2) killed at death camps outright (esp for Jews).
-death camps are in poland
-industrial method used.
Germany declares war on the US
Dec. 11, 1941 Hitler declares war on the US
-Hitler blames the US for leaning to far in favor of GB
-Hitler is not obliged to declare war because of Japan (3 power pact of axis = only if attacked)
-> wanted japan to decalre war on the soviet, doesnt happen.
The US economy on a wartime footing
U.S economy switches over to a war time economy-> huge effect on depressed economy
-12 million men drafted - open up jobs to minorities, women and unemployed.
-supplying Lend-Lease aid to GB and Soviet ($15-20 billion, $10 billion)
Problem with supplying aid to SU
supplying aid is thru Iran -> problem = the Sha of Iran is friendly w/ Germans
-US action against him and overthrow Reza Pahlevi
-Son, Mohammed Reza Pahlevi put in charge -> Sept 1943 declare war on Germany
= new promise: iran will get its independence after war.
The Grand Alliance: Military and Political Tension
-always tension within grand alliance: churchill, stalin and fdr.
-Churchill calls this alliance an alliance of english speaking peoples (alienates the SU)
Goal tension
August 1941, Churchill and FDR meet in complete secrecy and produce the Atlantic Charter = outlined war goals.
-doesnt include su
The Atlantic Charter
-no territorial gains
-self determination
-trade barriers lowered
-global economic cooperation and adv. of social welfare
-freedom of seas
-freedom from want and fear
-disarmament of aggressor nations, postwar common disarmament
-wilson 14 pts rhetoric
=not compliant w/ SU goals -> this is democratic.
-signed by SU sept 1941
Stalin wants a 2nd front
-Stalin wants a 2nd front
-by the end of 1941 the SU is engaged w/ 90% of German force.
U.S. joining war conditions
-U.S. joins war and they will pursue a europe 1st policy (Hitler then japan)
-US fights a holding game on japan = have to wait until Germany is defeated.
-US doesnt get into fight fast.
The North African Diversion: GB in Africa and Stalin's assumptions
-The British are fighting Germany in North Africa (Libya and Egypt).
-Stalin doesnt think GB or US care - they're waiting for fascist vs communist to weaken each other until they can take over and rid of both.
Took GB awhile to join and start a 2nd front: 3 reasons
1) German Uboats in Atlantic = huge threat
2) Not militarily ready
3) Churchill was so concerned with Gallipoli failure - too terrible to plan another water attack.
Took GB awhile to join and start a 2nd front: GB prefers..
-to prepare an attack on the soft underbelly of Italy and Germany in North Africa -> under Vichy control.
-good jumping off point to attack Italy (weak point).
Russia Counterattacks
Spring - Hitler's chance to assault SU again -> Stalingrad (cant get it) -> turning point in war
-Russians are finally able to knock Germans out and 1st time they can launch a successful counterattack (Sept 1943)
Operation Torch
November 1942
-Morocco, Tunisia and Algeria (Vichy Controlled) -> goals to get Sicily and to relieve troops fighting against Italy and Germany in Libya.
-British General Montgomery and German General Rommel are fighting.
-> significant defeat for Germany because they maintained Rommel from taking the Middle East, Suez cnal or linking up w/ Japs thru india.

-Hitler occupies all of France and US and GB ready to go to Italy.
Casablanca Conference
FDR, De gaulle (vichy france) and churchill meet in Casablanca conference, jan 1943.
-Stalin invited but doesnt attend
-pursue the unconditional surrender of the axis
-agree to help the SU asap
-agree on the invasion of italy and sicily
-landing in france in spring 1944 (D Day).
Tehron Conference
Nov - Dec 1943
-Stalin is annoyed that they're not making a 2nd front - feels GB is using the US to maintain empire, Op. Torch had no purpose.
-Stalin, Churchill and FDR meet in Tehran and dissolve tensions.
= a 2nd front will open in 1944.
-Stalin pledged to join the war against japan in due course once germany is defeated.
-Stalin presses for a sphere of influence in E. Europe and redrawing of polands borders (wants friendly neighbors and a buffer)
-roosevelt broaches the idea of a United Nations against Axis (Replace LN)
Assault on Sicily & Invasion of Italy
Sicily - Summer 1943
Italy - Sept 1943
-Mussolini is overthrown by King and communist counsel -> want new leadership to make peace w/ GB and US but fight w/ Germany because of fear of Hitler
Italy surrenders
Italy surrenders to US and GB
-German officers rescue Mussolini and reinstall him as a leader in N.Italy (Dependent on Germany)
-killed in 1945
-success in italy after much fighting.
Operation Overload
General Dwight D. Eisenhower is in charge of operation - landings in normandy.
-Hitler knows they're coming and puts fortifications up (Rommel in charge - kills himself after hes caught plotting against hitler)
-forifications - German Atlantic wall
-Eisenhower puts in place a massive deception plan -? Dover to Caly build a dummy army
-froces massing along South GB and Germans expect this attack.
DDay Landings
June 1944 US, GB and Canadians land => enormous sucess.
-control of French port and superiority = bad for Germans.
Germans being pushed out!
De Gaulle liberates Paris - August 1944
-Germans are on the defensive and are being pushed out of Western Europe.
Possible conflict between SU and US and GB: Percentage agreement
-Chruchill is worried about a SU conflict against the US and GB.
-goes to Moscow in 1944 and works out the Percentage Agreement - divide up europe.
-Romania = 90/10 Russia
-Greece = 90/10 GB
-Yugoslavia = 50/50
-Bulgaria = 80/20 Russia
-Hungary = 80/20 Russia
- US agrees
The Yalta Conference
February 1945 = big 3 get together
The Yalta Conference: 4 occupation zones, dimilitarization of germany, su join war against japan
-unconditional surrender
-Germany will be split into 4 occupation zones (US, GB, French, Russia)
-Churchill is worried about Stalin
-Germany is dimilitarized and dinazied.
-su agrees to join war against japan 90 days after germany is defeated
The Yalta Conference: Reparations
-reparations = russia is adament $20 billion = half given to soviets.
The Yalta Conference: Poland
-Poland can have free/democratic elections (bc as theyre liberating they're putting communist gov tin control - US and GB dont want this)
-As russians move into Poland, Polish officials are killed @ Katyn Forest Massacre.
-border of Poland back to where it was set post WWI, Russia annexes east half and Poland annexes east Germany (borders shifted over) = The Curzon line.
The Potsdam Conference
July-August 1945
-Germany returns to its pre-1937 borders
-demiliterization, denazification, democratization and declartelization (no corporate germany)
-division of germany and austria into 4 occupation zones
-prosecution of nazi war criminals (nuremburg trials)
-expulsion of the german population remaining beyond the borders of germany
-reparations (bulk goes to Russians) = zonal reparations cant take from ally zones.
Pearl Harbor
Pearl Harbor, Dec. 7 1941
-secret attack by Japan
-US had cracked the Japanese naval code - knew something was going to happen the morning of, sent a warning that arrived too late
-success for japs except the US carriers werent there
-2,335 lives lost, 68 civilians
-lose 4 battleships and 4 destroyers
-190 plans
-japs lose 5 submarines and 29 planes
The Fullest Extent of Japanese Expansion, Winter-Spring 1942
-they have burma, singapore, thailand, dutch east indies, new guinea, attacking N. Austrailia
Maintence - oil
by the Spring 1942 the ability of maintenence depends on oil.
Play an anti-imperial role
-as japan moves thru european colonies they play an anti-imperial role to native
The greater east asia co-prosperity sphere
The greater east asia co-prosperity sphere = japanese imperialism, the rhetoric of expansion
"liberating" peoples from colinzers -> create an interdependent, self-sufficient sphere.
= benefits japan
- set up new govts = japanese puppets.
Racial superiority
Japaense have a racial superiority complex about selves over whitse and other asians (japs are master race/Yamato Race)
-try to japanify nations
-forced labor, torture, execution
Lowpoint for US and GB
-for gb and us = low pt in pacific area
-gb fears india is next (link for jap and germany)
-independence movement in india - led by Gandhi, non-violence
-Japs create an indian nationalist army (fascist)
-led by Bose w/ Indian prisoners
The Domestic Reaction in the US to Pearl Harbor
-Pearl harbor = symbol for US war effort
-emotional response that assumed a racial character toward the Japanese
-short sited and inner ear deficiency.
-racial images emerge: vermon, rats, inhuman, snakes, apes
-> rarely see racialization in american propoganda about germany (only hilter and nazis)
-no distinction between rulers and peoples in Japan.
-Japanese have stereotypes about whites.
After Pearl harbor change in stereotype
after pearl harbor there is a change from comical to superhuman.
Internment and exclusion zones
Internment of 110,00 Japanese in West Coast, US
-executive orders 9066, February 19, 1942 -> called for the establishment of exclusionary zones for certain pouplations by military along west coast
-cant visit/or live there
-Japense internment camp, Topaz Utah
The American Counteroffensive in the Pacific
-not considered a decisive offensive (defensive)
-2 prong attack 1) from Peral Harbor to Midway 2) from Australia.
Battle of Coral Sea
summer 1942 - inconclusive
-proves aircraft carriers are important
Battle of Midway
-1st conclusive battle occurs at Midway isles outside of Japanese Control
-1st major/important engagement
-turning pt in favor of US
-June 4-7, 1945
-Major japanese defeat - lost 4 carriers = evens odds bc japense were ahead w/ more carriers.
Tables Turn
Japanese dont engage w/ US as able as they were before
-US can begin in the pacific
-island hopping campaign (2 prong), work north to japan, liberating isle on the way (=airstrips for bombardment on japanese).
Battle of the Philippines
-most important battle
-MacArthur returns to liberate them in Oct 1942 - isles allows this
=bloody, verocioius battle.
Okanawa and Iwojima
-early 1945
-showed what it takes to win war, very bloody
-invasion of Main isles would be very costly - approx 1 million casualties - too much for FDR to consider.
Fanatical Japanese natives/troops
Japanese natives/troops are fanatical
-suicide cliff, Saipan 1944
-kill themselves instead of being taken by americans
-many die in battles
-Kamikaze attacks (divine wind) japs crash planes into carriers
=> Japanese wont surrender
Potsdam Declaration, July-Aug 1945
what to do w/ Germany and japan (pacific war)
-desire to end war asap w/ least amount of lives lost
-unconditional surrender = complicates efforst to end war
-> alternative prompt or utter destruction
galvanized japanese
Those in japan who dont want to surrender are strengthened because now they have nothing to lose
-they wanted to keep their emporer in throne but bc this wont be allowed they are galvanized.
Churchill defeated
Atley (Labor Party) becomes British primse minister in 1945
Prompt and utter destruction
-prompt and utter destruction - Truman hears that July 16, 1945 US successfully tested an atomic bomb in New Mexico (he is empowered)
-truman didnt know about the manhatten project until he was president
Atomic Bomb
-seen as beginning with a letter by Albert Einstein written by Leo Szilard => germans are building bombs (they actually werent)
-letter says be aware that this is a possibility, Germ is interested in Uranium in Czech.
Manhatten Project
concentrated efforst in 1942
-under military control of General Leslie Groves
-Scientific control = Robert Oppenheimer
-Los Alamos, New Mexico.
Manhatten Project efforts
pre-dominantly American affair - dont tell the soviets
-couple people were sympathetic w/ the soviets = Klaus Fuchs and Ted Hall
-lots of people working on project
nuclear reaction
Sept 1942 1st sustaining nuclear chain reactino @ chicago by Ferni
Trinity Test
July 16, 1945 = 1st test, Almagordo New Mexico
-plutonium instead of uranium.
= complete success
-truman is informed of this and tells stalin he has a powerful new weapon (stalin is not that surprised)
Atomic diplomacy
beginning of atomic diplomacy - Us is the only one with a bomb until 1949
-designed for used against germany.
The End of the War in the far east: Hiroshima and Tokyo Bay
-unconditional surrender, no conditions
-japanese blockade, US superiority
-by Aug 1945 Japan is crippled
bomb decision
@ Potsdam atomic bomb decision is made
-use it on Japan
-2 bombs: Hiroshima (Little Boy Uranium) and Nagasaki (Fat Man Plutonium)
August 6, 1945
Enola Gay leaves Timian Isles leaves for Hiroshima
-Pilot Paul Tibbete
-Hiroshima wasnt a military significant area, no pow count there, surrounded by mts.
-dropped august 6 at 8 am
=> 80,000 instantly dead
50,000 wounded or missing
August 8, 1945
Stalin enters war against japan because of Yalta conference
-SU invades Manchuria
August 9, 1945
2nd bomb on Nagasaki
-74,000 dead
-70,000 wounded or missing
August 14, 1945
Japan ultimately surrdenders
-MacArthur accepts this Sept 2, 1945 on USS Missouri
-emporer announces this
-truman feels he had fulfilled FDR's legacy
Walker Myth
there is a choice between using the bomb or invading japan -> not true, there are many other options.
Walker Myth: Option 1) modification of unconditional surrender
Japanese would've surrendered if they modified unconditional surrender (emperor stay on throne)
Walker Myth: Option 2) continue bombing and blockade
Continue conventional bombing and continue effective blockade (starve them)
-problem: too slow of a method/less humane
Walker Myth: Option 3) Wait for soviets
wait for soviets to join the war
-problem: dont want to share japan w/ soviets, dont need the soviets (japanese troops are spread out and cant get back to japan)
Walker Myth: Option 4) Use bomb in unhabited area as a demonstration
Use bomb in unhabited area as a demonstration then offer them an ultimatem.
-problem: one bomb down, might not effect japan - may not surrender, doesnt have the same psychological effect on isle as on a city/population
Why they decide to drop the bomb: 1)atomic diplomacy
atomic diplomacy = intimidate the soviets
Why they decide to drop the bomb: 2)end the war
end the war asap
Why they decide to drop the bomb: 3) save lives
save american lives
Why they decide to drop the bomb: 4) no reason not to
no reasons not to use the bomb - dealing w/ the beast, no moral/sympathetic feelings w/ scum.
Why they decide to drop the bomb: 5) Justification
wanted to justify the costs, time, effort, put into the manhatten project = accountable to congress/american people