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141 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
The mesencephalon form
the midbrain
The cornea bends
light rays
Cones are for
color vision
Rods are for
night vision
The medulla contains
the cardiovascular center
The medulla contains
the respiratory center
The falx cerebelli
separates the cerebellum
The falx cerebri
separates the cerebrum
Phasic receptors adapt
to a stimuli
C fibers for
slow pain transmission
The tuberal region synthesizes
hypothalamic regulating hormones
The supraoptic region synthesizes
ADH & oxytocin
Tonic receptors don’t adapt
to a stimuli
The semicircular canals contain
receptors for rotational movement
The central sulcus separates
frontal from parietal lobe
A single endocrine gland
may produce multiple hormones
The pons possess the
pneumotaxic & apneustic areas
The malleus is connected
to the tympanic membrane
Stomach - Gastrin -
Stimulate gastric activity
A delta fibers are
for fast pain transmission
The iris regulates the
diameter of the pupil
Proprioceptors relay information about body
position, equilibrium, & movements
Non-tropic hormone exerts its effects
on non-endocrine target tissues
Endocrine systems provide a temporal
(time) coordination of function
The prosencephalon forms the telencephalon
which forms the cerebrum
The tentorium cerebelli separates the
cerebrum from the cerebellum
The preoptic region is involved
in regulating autonomic activities
The putamen controls large automatic
movements of skeletal muscle
The cerebellum has no detect
connections with skeletal muscles
The medulla contains the nucleus
gracilis & nucleus cuneatus
The medulla contains all the
ascending & descending tracts
The functions of the cerebellum
include posture & balance
The endocrine system relies on
duration rather than speed
Heat, cold, & pain receptors
are free nerve endings
The corpus callosum is a
type of commissural fiber
The two types of photoreceptors
are rods and cones
The limbic system is involved
in emotion & memory
The rhombencephalon forms the myelencephalon
which forms the medulla oblongata
The substantia nigra of the
midbrain controls subconscious muscle activities
Tropic hormones regulate the production
& secretion of another hormone
The flocculonodular lobe of the
cerebellum is involved in equilibrium
Small Intestines - CCK -
Stimulate bile & pancreatic secretions
Broca’s area controls muscles of
the larynx, pharynx, & mouth
The medial geniculate of the
thalamus is involved in hearing
The lateral geniculate of the
thalamus is involved in vision
The reticular formation (RAS) is
the relay form muscle tone
The anterior of the thalamus
is involved emotions & memory
The primary visual cortex is
located in the occipital lobe
Kidney - Erythropoetin - RBC
production in the bone marrow
The photoreceptors of the eye
are located in the retina
The prosencephalon forms the diencephalon which
forms the thalamus & hypothalamus
The cerebellum receives sensory input from
proprioceptors in muscles, joints, etc
The rhombencephalon forms the metencephalon which
forms the pons & cerebellum
The medial lemniscus conveys impulses
for discrimitive touch, and vibrations
The medulla contains the olive for
precise voluntary movements & posture
The cerebellum is separated from the
cerebrum by the tentorium cerebelli
Broca’s area sends impulses to the
primary motor to regulate breathing
Pituitary gland is divided into an
anterior region & posterior region
CSF is produced by the ependymal
cells covering the choroids plexus
The tympanic membrane separates the outer
ear from the middle ear
The globus pallidus is involved in
the regulation of muscle tone
The middle ear contains the 3
ossicles – malleus, incus, stapes
The primary gustatory is located in
the parietal lobe for taste
The primary olfactory is located in
the temporal lobe for smell
The reticular formation (RAS) relays sensory
information related to consciousness & awakening
The hypothalamus is divided into the
mammillary, tuberal, supraoptic, & pre-optic regions
The midbrain possess the superior cerebellar
peduncles which connect to the cerebellum
The post-central gyrus of the parietal
lobe contains the primary somatosensory area
Infundibulum portion of the pituitary gland
contains nerve fibers & blood vessels
The inner ear is divided into
the vestibule, semicircular canals, & cochlea
CSF is reabsorbed via the arachnoid
villi into the superior sagittal sinus
The pre-central gyrus of the frontal
lobe contains the primary motor area
The same chemical messenger may be
either a hormone or a neurotransmitter
The cerebellum is attached to the
brain stem by the cerebellar peduncles
The ventral posterior of the thalamus
is involved in taste, touch, pain
The dentate gyrus & amygdaloid body
are part of the limbic system
A single hormone may be secreted
by more than one endocrine gland
CSF flows from the 3rd to
the 4th through the cerebral aqueduct
A single target cell may be
influenced by more than one hormone
The stapes is connected to the
oval window of the middle ear
These ossicles transduce sounds waves into mechanical
energy (fluid movement within the cochlea)
Projection fibers of the cerebral white matter
form the descending & ascending tracts
CSF flows from the lateral ventricles to
the 3rd vis the interventricular foramen
The internal capsule of the corpus striatum
contains the sensory & motor tracts
The ciliary body & suspensory ligaments of
the eye are necessary for focusing
Cones are concentrated in the fovea centralis
– area of highest visual acuity
Perception is the interpretation of a sensation
that is created in our brain
Commissural fibers of the cerebral white matter
allow communication between gyri in both hemispheres
The pons possess the middle cerebellar peduncles
which connect the right & left cerebellum
The utricle & saccule contain receptors for
gravity (head position) & linear acceleration
The thalamus is the principal relay station
for sensory impulses to the cerebral cortex
The mammillary region is relay station for
reflexes related to the sense of smell
Glucagon – secreted by Pancreatic islet a
cells, Opposite action to insulin, increase blood glucose
Association fibers of the cerebral white matter
allow communication between gyri on the same side
The lenticular nucleus of the corpus striatum
is divided into the putamen & globus pallidus.
Broca’s area in the frontal lobe is
involved in the translation of thought into speech
The cranial dura mater is made up
of an outer endosteal & inner meningeal layer
Tactile & pressure receptors include Meissner’s corpuscles,
Pacinian corpuscles, organs of Ruffini, and bulbs of Krause
The tectum of the midbrain possesses the
corpora quadrigemina which possess the superior & inferior colliculi
The anterior & posterior lobe of the
cerebellum are involved in subconscious movement of skeletal muscles
The pre-motor association area is involved in
learned motor activities of a complex & sequential nature
The inferior colliculi is the reflex center
for movements of the head & trunk to auditory
The red nucleus of the midbrain functions
with the basal ganglia & cerebellum to coordinate muscular movements
The pons possess longitudinal fibers which are
sensory & motor tracts connecting the medulla to the brainstem
Hair cells are embedded in the basilar
membrane and their stereocilia are embedded in the tectorial membrane
The ventral lateral & ventral anterior of
the thalamus is involved in voluntary motor actions & arousal
CSF flows from the 4th into the
subarachnoid space via the median aperature & 2 lateral aperatures
The superior colliculi is the reflex center
for movements of the head & eyes to visual stimuli
The blind spot is the location where
the optic nerve exits the eyes – no photoreceptors there
Epinephrine & Nor-epinephrine from adrenal glands stimulates
hepatic gluconeogenesis & glycogenolysis, increases overall metabolic rate, increased CNS alertness
The caudate nucleus of the corpus striatum
of the basal ganglia controls large automatic movements of skeletal muscle
The visual association area in the occipital
lobe is for relating past visual experiences with present for evaluation
The frontal eye field is located in
the frontal cortex and controls voluntary scanning movements of the eyes
Diabetes - Type I lack of
insulin secretion, Type II reduced sensitivity of insulin target cells
Hypothalamus controls the secretion of anterior pituitary
gland hormones & produces hormones that are secreted from the posterior pituitary
The primary auditory is located in the
temporal lobe & is involved in the sensation of pitch & rhythm
The hormone classes released by the adrenal
glands are: Mineralcorticoids - mineral balance, Glucocorticoids - energy metabolism, Sex hormones
Anterior pituitary is: composed of glandular epithelial
tissue, is connected to hypothalamus via blood vessels, is not linked to posterior pituitary
Gnostic area is located among the somatosensory,
visual, & auditory association areas and integrates many sensory inputs into a common thought
A single hormone may have more than
one type of target cell & thus induce more than one type of effect
Some organs are exclusively endocrine in function,
while other organs of the endocrine system perform non-endocrine functions in addition to secreting hormones
Wernicke’s area (auditory association) in the temporal
cortex determines if a sound is speech, music, or tone and translates words into thoughts
The midbrain possess the cerebral peduncles which
contain sensory & motor tracts for communication between the spinal cord & upper & lower brain
The tectorial membrane & basilar membrane are
in the inner ear and are responsible for the transduction of mechanical energy into nerve impulses
The primary motor is located in the
pre-central gyrus of the frontal lobe & are for voluntary contractions and body parts represented unequally
MELATONIN function regulate biological clock, induces natural
sleep, inhibits reproductive activity, shuts down ovulation, slow aging via the removal of free radicals, enhance immunity
The somatosensory association area is posterior to
the primary somatosensory area & they integrate & interpret sensations , comparing old tactile memories with new ones
C cells are located between follicles in
the thyroid gland & secrete calcitonin for proper calcium metabolism = decrease blood calcium levels if they are elevated
The posterior pituitary gland secretes: Oxytocin
- Increases uterine contractility; Stimulates milk ejection, Vasopressin - Increases H2O permeability in kidneys’ collecting tubules; Induces arteriolar vasoconstriction
The hypothalamus controls & integrates ANS activities,
regulates body temperature, regulates food intake, thirst center, waking state & sleep patterns, associated with feelings of rage & aggression
The adrenal glands are divided into 3
zones: Zona glomerulosa - aldosterone production, Zona fasciculata - cortisol production, sex hormone production, & Zona reticularis - cortisol production, sex hormone production
Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) - only adrenal hormone of
significance, DHEA overpowered by male testosterone, Significant in females to induce pubic & axillary hair; enhance pubertal growth spurt; development & maintenance of female sex drive
The primary somatosensory or general sensory area
is located in the post-central gyrus on each parietal lobe and receive nerve impulses for touch, pain, temperature, proprioception, and the body parts are represented unequally
Insulin - Secreted by b cells in
the Islets of Langerhans, Promote storage; lowers blood glucose, glycogenesis (glucose to glycogen) in skeletal muscle & liver, inhibits glycogenolysis (glycogen to glucose), inhibits gluconeogenesis (amino acids to glucose)
Mineralcorticoids (aldosterone) for mineral balance have the following functions:
Na+ retention in distal & collecting tubules, Enhances K+ secretion, Activated by renin-angiotensin system due to blood pressuredrop/Na+ decrease, Angiotensin stimulates growth of the zona glomerulosa
Parathyroid gland possesses : Principal cells synthesize parathyroid
hormone (PTH) which increases the blood calcium levels by acting on the bones, kidneys, & small intestines & Oxyphil cells are support cells & store reserve quantities of PTH
The hypothalamus secretes the following: Thyrotropin releasing hormone -
TSH & prolactin, Corticotropin releasing hormone – ACTH, Gonadotropin releasing hormone - FSH & LH, Growth hormone releasing hormone – GH, Growth hormone inhibiting hormone - GH & TSH, Prolactin releasing factor – Prolactin, Prolactin inhibiting hormone - Prolactin
Thyroid Gland Functions via the action of the hormones
T3 & T4: Increases basal metabolic rate, Calorigenic (heat) effect, Promote synthesis & degradation of carbohydrates, proteins , & fat, Sympathomimetic effect by increasing cell responsiveness to catecholamines via increasing receptor density, Facilitates cardiovascular output, Facilitates the effects of growth hormone, Necessary for proper growth & functioning of the nervous system
Glucocorticoids (cortisol) for glucose, fat, & protein metabolism; transported
by transcortin Increase blood glucose at the expense of protein & fat stores (Inhibits glucose uptake by tissues, except the brain, Stimulates protein degradation, Facilitates lipolysis - lipid breakdown); Regulated by ACTH from the anterior pituitary (ACTH stimulates growth & secretion of the zona fasciculata & reticularis; ACTH release regulated by corticotropin releasing hormone (CRH) from the hypothalamus)
The anterior pituitary gland secretes: Growth hormone (somatotropin)
- Regulating overall body growth, Thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) - Stimulates thyroid hormone secretion; growth of thyroid gland, Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) - Stimulates cortisol secretion by adrenal cortex; growth of adrenal cortex, Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) - Stimulates gamete production, Luteinizing hormone (LH) - Stimulate ovulation; secretion of estrogen & progesterone in females; testosterone in males, Prolactin - Enhances breast development & milk production