• Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off

Card Range To Study



Play button


Play button




Click to flip

Use LEFT and RIGHT arrow keys to navigate between flashcards;

Use UP and DOWN arrow keys to flip the card;

H to show hint;

A reads text to speech;

76 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back

What are Regulatory Hormones?

Secreted from the Hypothalamus, they are special Hormones that control the activity of endocrine cells in the anterior pituitary gland.
What are Releasing Hormones? (RH)
A Regulatory Hormone. They stimulate the production of one or more hormones in the anterior pituitary.
What are Inhibiting Hormones?
A Type of Regulatory Hormone, that inhibits the production or secretion of pituitary hormones.
What is Antidiuretic Hormone?
Secreted from the Hypothalamus, & stored in the Posterior Pituitary, they retain water and they are regulated by higher brain canters.
What is Oxytosin?

Secreted from Hypothalamus, stored in Posterior Pituitary Gland, Oxytosin stimulates smooth muscle contractions during labor, the Milk Let Down Reflex, and Prostate Gland contraction. Regulated by higher brain functions.

What is Thyroid Stimulating Hormone? (TSH)
Anterior Pituitary Hormone, regulated by the Hypothalamus, that stimulates the thyroid.
What is Prolactin?
Anterior Pituitary hormone essential for breast milk production, regulated by the Hypothalamus.
What is Growth Hormone?
Anterior Pituitary Hormone that stimulates cell growth and reproduction, regulated by the Hypothalamus.
What is Luteinizing Hormone?
Anterior Pituitary Hormone which induces ovulation, and promotes the secretion by the ovaries of estrogen. Also stimulates the interstitial cells of the testes. Regulated by the Hypothalamus.
What is Adrenocorticotropic Hormone? (ACTH)
Anterior Pituitary Hormone, that stimulates the release of steroid hormones by the adrenal cortex. Regulated by the Hypothalamus.
What is Follicle-Stimulating Hormone? (FSH)
Anterior Pituitary Hormone, that stimulates egg production in ovaries, and sperm production in testes. Regulated by the Hypothalamus.
What is Melanocyte-Stimulating Hormone? (MSH)
Anterior Pituitary Hormone, that stimulates melanocytes in the skin, and increase their production of Melanin (Skin Pigment) Regulated by the Hypothalamus.
What is Thyroxine?
T4: Tetraiodothyrinine
T3: Triiodothyrainine
A Thyroid Hormone, that stimulates Metabolism. Regulated by Thyroid Stimulating Hormone (TSH)
What is Calcitonin?
A Thyroid Hormone, that helps reduce the calcium ion concentration in the body fluid. Regulated by Calcium level in blood.
What is Parathyroid Hormone?
A hormone found in the parathyroid, that increases blood calcium levels. Regulated by the blood calcium level.
What is Thymosin?
A Thymus Hormone of the thymus essential for the development and differentiation of T-cells (Immunity).
What are Androgens?
A steroid sex hormone in the testes and manufactured in small quantities in the adrenal cortex, that give the secondary sex characteristics.
What are Mineralocorticoids? (MCS)
An Adrenal Cortex Hormone, that regulates the sodium (Na+) and Potassium (K+) Affecting the Kidneys.
What are Glucocorticoids? (GCS)
Adrenal Cortex Hormones, that affect glucose metabolism. Regulated by ACTH.
Ex: Cortisol, Corticosterone, Cortisone.
What are Epinepherine and Norepinephrine?
Adrenal Medulla Hormones. Flight or Fight Response. They increase heart rate, respiratory rate, blood sugar levels, metabolism. Regulated by Higher Brain Functions and the Sympathetic Nervous system.
What is Renin?
A hormone secreted by the kidneys, Renin has a vasoconstricting effect on the peripherals, and a water conserving effect on the kidneys. Regulated by blood volume.
What is Erythropoietin? (EPO)
Hormone released by kidneys, that travels to red bone marrow and stimulated RBC production. Regulated by Blood Volume.
What is Calcitrol?
A Hormone secreted by the kidneys that regulates calcium levels in the blood with help of Vitamin D. Regulated by Parathyroid Hormone (PTH)
What is Atriel Natriuretic peptide? (ANP)
Hormone released by the Kidney's ANP promotes sodium and water loss at the kidneys, and blocks other water conserving hormones like ADH, and EPO. Regulated by blood pressure/volume.
What is Insulin?
A Kidney Hormone that decreases blood glucose levels. Regulated by the blood glucose level.
What is Glucagon?
A Hormone of the Pancreas that raises blood glucose levels. Regulated by blood glucose levels.
What is Testosterone? (Androgen)
The main hormone secreted by the Testes, gives males their secondary sex characteristics. Regulated by FSH and LH.
What is Inhibin?
A Hormone found in both the Testes and the ovaries, responsible for regulation of sperm levels and maintaining uterus lining. Regulated by the sperm/ uterine levels.
What is Estrogen?
A Hormone secreted by the ovaries, responsible for giving women their secondary sex characteristics.
What is Melatonin?
A Hormone secreted by the Pineal gland, that is responsible for establishment of day night cycles of activity. Regulated by light and dark.
What are the TWO hormones Secreted from the Hypothalamus?
Antidiuretic hormone and Oxytocin.
What are the SEVEN hormones secreted from the Anterior Pituitary Hormone?
TSH, Prolactin, Growth Hormone, LE, ACTH, FSH, MSH.
What are the NINE hormones regulated by the Hypothalamus?
TSH, Prolactin, GH, LE, ACTH, FSH, MSH, ADH and Oxytocin.
What are the TWO hormones STORED in the Posterior Pituitary?
ADH and Oxytocin.
What are the TWO hormones secreted from the Thyroid?
Thyroxine and Calcitonin?
What is secreted from the Parathyroid gland?
Parathyroid Hormone (Increasing Blood Calcium)
What is Secreted by the Thymus Gland?
Thymosin (Regulating T- cells, and Immunity)
What THREE hormones are secreted by the Adrenal Cortex?
Androgens, Mineralocorticoids (Aldosterone) Glucocorticoids (Cortisol)
What TWO hormones are secreted by the Adrenal Medulla?
Epinephrine and Norepinephrine.
What THREE hormones are secreted by the Kidneys?
Renin, EPO and Calcitrol.
What Hormone is Secreted by the Heart?

ANP (Atriel Naturetic Peptide)

What TWO hormones are stimulated by the Pancreas?
Insulin and Glucagon.
What TWO Hormones are secreted by the Testes?
Testosterone and Inhibin.
What are the THREE Hormones secreted by the ovaries?
Estrogen, Inhibin and Progesterone.
What is the ONLY Hormone secreted by the Pineal Gland?
What does Prolactin do?
Stimulate breast milk production.
What does Leutinizing hormone do?
Stimulate the interstitial fluid of the testes and ovaries.
What does ACTH do?
Stimulates the Adrenal Cortex.
What does FSH do?
Stimulates egg production in ovaries and sperm.
What does MSH do?
Stimulates melanocytes (Skin Tone)
What does Oxytocin do?
Stimulates Labor Contraction, prostate contraction and milk letdown.
What does Thyroxin do?
Stimulates Metabolism
What does Calcitonin do?
Reduce blood Calcium
What does Parathyroid Hormone do?
Increases blood calcium.
What does Thymosin do?
Regulates T-Cells (Immunity)
What do Mineralocorticoids do?
Regulates Sodium and Potassium (Aldosterone)
What do Glucocorticoids do?
Increasing blood glucose, release anti-inflamitory causing vaso constriction.
What does Calcitrol do?
Regulates Calcium in blood with the help of Vitimin D
What does Insulin do?
Decrease blood glucose levels
What does Glucagon do?
Decrease blood glucose levels.
What does Progesterone do?
Maintaining uterine wall and movement of egg, and maintains pregnancy until placenta takes over.
What does Melatonin do?
Establishes sleep/wake cycles.

Hypothalamus hormones

1.corticortropin-releasing hormone CRH

2. tryrotropin-releasing hormone THS

3. growth hormone-releasing hormone GH-RH

4. growth hormone-inhibiting hormone GH-IH

5. prolactin-inhibing hormone PIH

6. prolactin-releasing factor PRF

7. gonadopropin-releasing hormone GnRH

pituitary (hypophysis) hormones

posterior lobe (neurohypophysis_

1. antidiuretic hormone ADH

2. oxytocin OXT

pituitary (hypophysis) hormones

anterior lobe (adenohypophysis)

1. thyroid-stimulating hormone TSH

2. adrenocorticotropic hormone ACTH

3. gonadotropins (follicle-stimulating hormone FSH and luteninizing hormone LH)

4. growth hormone GH

5. prolactin PRL

6. mylanocyte-stimulating hormone MSH

thyroid hormones

calcitonin CT

thyroxine T4

triidothyronine T3

parathyroid hormones

parathyroid hormone PTH

adrenal hormones

from cortex

1. aldosterone

2. cortisol

3. androgens

from medulla

1. epinephrine E

2. norepinephrine NE

pancreas hormones

1. glucagon GL

2. insulin

3. growth hormone-inhibiting hormone GH-IH

pineal gland hormone


tropic hormone

a hormone that stimulates and supports other endocrine glands. stimulating, releasing and inhibiting hormones.

Anterior pituitary

Tropic hormones from the anterior pituitary include:

* Thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH or thyrotropin) – stimulates the thyroid gland to make and release thyroid hormone.
* Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH or corticotropin) – stimulates the adrenal cortex to release glucocorticoids.
* Luteinizing hormone (LH) – stimulates the release of steroid hormones in gonads—the ovary and testes.
* Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) – stimulates the maturation of eggs and production of sperm
* Hypothalamus

negative feedback

thyroid releasing hormone from the hypothalamus stimulates the pituitary to release thyroid stimulating hormone into the bloodstream, which stimulates thyroid follicular cells to add iodine to the amino-acid component of thyroglobulin. once converted T3 & T4 are released into the blood to be used as needed. T3 & T4 make their way back to the hypothalamus telling it to stop releasing TRH, which stops the pituitary from releasing TSH shutting down the cycle.

paracrine secretions

1. denoting a type of hormone function in which hormone synthesized in and released from endocrine cells binds to its receptor in nearby cells and affects their function.

2. denoting the secretion of a hormone by an organ other than an endocrine gland.

alpha cells of pancreas

produce and secrete glucagon which elevates glucose levels in the blood

beta cells of pancreas

store and release insulin which reduces glucose levels in the blood

delta cells of the pancreas

secrete somatostatin which inhibits the secretion of both insulin and glucagon