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22 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back

What is the endocrine system??

A chemical messenger system consisting of hormones

Animals respond to changes in their environment. Name two ways they may respond externally?

Respond to changes in the temperature and a response to danger

Animals respond to changes in their environment. Name two responses internally.

Change in blood glucose levels and changes in osmotic pressure.

What is osmotic pressure?

The pressure that prevents a pure solvent from passing into a less concentrated solution by osmosis

What is the purpose of communication systems in animals?

To detect changes in environment and generate the appropriate response

How are the appropriate responses to changes in environment delivered?

The nervous and endocrine system work together in a coordinated and complimentary way.

What is the difference between hormonal and nervous communication when it comes to speed?

Hormonal communication can be slow may take seconds or even minutes. As for the nervous communication is fast, acts almost straight away which speeds of over 200mph.

What is the difference between hormonal and nervous communication when it comes to duration?

Hormonal is longer lasting and nervous is very short lived.

What is the difference in hormonal and nervous communication when it comes to action?

Hormonal action is wide spread and can be felt all over the body as the nervous action is very localised.

Explain autocrine intercellular signalling

It's a self induced signal therefore the cell will produce a signalling molecule and realise it so that it can bind to the cell receptor on the surface of the cell which then tell the cell what to do. This is normally used for cell division and regeneration of tissue.

Explain paracrine intercellular signaling

Like the autocrine signaling a cell produces the signal moclecule and then releases it into the external environment. Instead of this binding to the same cells receptor it binds to the adjacent cell receptor to activate the effect. Normally found in the immune system to activate T cells.

Explain the endocrine signaling system.

Cells found in the hormone glands secrete hormones which are then carried by the bloodstream to their destination. Can be distant location in the body from the gland.

What are hormones used for?

Regulating energy use, metabolism and growth. They all together maintain homeostasis

How do hormones travel to their destination?

They are secreted by endocrine glands directly into the bloodstream

Where can hormones reach? And can they react with all cells?

Hormones can reach all body parts but only react with specific receptors on target cells.

Does each hormone only have one effect?

No one hormone can have difference effects.

What are the three main types of hormones? And what are they soluble in?

Proteins which are water soluble. Amines which are either water or lipid soluble and steroids which are lipid soluble.

How do lipid soluble hormones activate cells?

They pass through the cell membrane and bind to a receptor on the nucleus which hinds to the DNA. This then turns specific genes on or off to produce a new protein with the desired function.

How do water soluble hormones activate the desired cell?

They bind to the specific cell receptor on the cell membrane. This then starts a chain reaction of relay molecules which transmit a signal which leads to the cell response occurring.

In the pancreas which cells release which hormone.

Alpha cells release glucagon when blood glucose levels are low and beta cells release insulin when blood glucose levels are High.

How are thyroid hormone levels in the body controlled?

Through beget I've feedback when thyroid levels reach the patuitary gland and the hypothalamus they stop sending signals to the thyroid gland to secrete more hormones.

How does the hypothalamus control the secretion fro. The pituitary gland?

By using nervous and hormonal control system.