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58 Cards in this Set

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  • Back


- inthe Roman Republic, a member of the upper, ruling class


one of two chief leaders in Rome


to refuse to approve proposals of government


a set of basic laws

Civil War

a war between groupsin the same country


an official of Rome elected by Plebeians torepresent them


in the Roman Republic, one of the common people

Pax Romana

- a200-year period of peace and stability established and maintained

Julius Caesar

a Roman general who ended the RomanRepublic when he seized power and became dictator for life

Punic Wars

a series of wars fought between Rome andCarthage for control of the Mediterranean


the oldest male of aRoman household; his word was law for the family


a form of governmentin which leaders are elected to represent the people

Caesar Augustus

Julius Caesar’sgrandnephew and adopted son, Octavian; Rome’s first emperor


a ruler with absolutepower

Circus Maximus

a large Roman stadium, primarily used forchariot races


a large arena inRome where gladiator contests and other games and sporting events were held

Rule of Law

the idea that peopleshould live according to a set of agreed-upon laws


the center of most of the important publicactivities of the city Rome and its empire


a group of 300 men togovern Rome

What did the oracle atDelphi determine?

1. It answersquestions, decides your fate, and tells you what the god Apollo thinks youshould do.

The Latin word forPatrician, Pater, means what?


The Latin word forPlebeians, Plebs, means what?

The common people

1. The Etruscan kings:

a. Ruled Rome between 616and 509 BCE

b. First ruled early Rome

c. Were denounced by Brutus and he was elected asone of the first consuls in the new republic

The Patricians:

1. They wereupperclassmen. Patricians controlled the most valuable land. They also held theimportant military and religious offices.

The Plebeians

Plebeianswere mostly peasants, laborers, craftspeople, and shopkeepers. They could notbe priests or government officials. They had little voice in the government.Yet they still were forced to serve in the army. They made up 95% of thepopulation.


The Senate was a group of 300 patricians elected bypatricians. The senators served for life. They also appointed othergovernment officials and served as judges. They appointed otherpatricians to other political jobs.


Twoelected leaders, called consuls, shared command of the army.

Roman republic begins


Plebeians rebel and refuse to fight


Romans write down laws


One consul must be a plebeian


Plebeians pass laws for everyone


What was the conflict of the orders?

The Conflictof the Orders, also referred to, as the Struggle of the Orders, was a political strugglebetween the Plebeians and Patricians of the ancient Roman Republic lasting from494 BCE to 287 BCE, in which the Plebeians sought political equality with thePatricians. It ended in laws being written down, one of the consuls having tobe a Plebeians, and the Plebeians being able to pass laws for all citizens.

The Tribunes of the Plebsdemanded that laws be written down. In that way, the patricians couldn’t changethem at will. In 451 BCE, the patricians agreed and the laws were published ontablets called the

twelve tables

First period of expansion

Date- 509BCE

TheRomans drove the last Etruscan king out and became a republic. They makealliances with a lot of other people.

They gain the Italian Peninsula

All of the Plebeians had to fight and they lost many.

FirstPunic War

It was foughtmostly by sea. Romans took over Sicily.

Second Punic War

The people from Carthage attack Rome. Theygot Spain.

Third Punic War

Cato sends an army to defeat Carthage. Theyburn it to the ground. They have now gotten North Africa, Macedonia, andGreece.

The results of the Punic wars

Rome gained North Africa, much of Spain,Sicily, Macedonia, and Greece.

1. How did expansion make civil wars larger andmore harmful?

Small farms were replaced with large estates. Lots ofjobs were lost. Civil wars started. There were many more people to fight.

When does the republic end?

When Julius Caesar defeats Pompey and becomes a dictator.

What happens after JuliusCaesar was murdered?

Civil wars erupt

Praetorian Guard

To reform Roman morals,Augustus harshly punished people for being unfaithful to their husbands orwives. To protect himself and his family, he established a private army,the Praetorian Guard. Later, this same Guard sometimes took part inmurder plots againstthe emperors it was supposed to protect.

Bread and Circuses

Romanemperors made sure to give the poor “bread and circuses”—food and entertainment—to keepthem busy and happy.

Who made decisions at Romantrials?

A jury of citizens

What was the senators role?

They didn’t reallyhave real power, but they had had a high social class. They lived in nicehouses and had nice clothes. They had body guards that carried fasces.

What was the crime like?

The most frequentcrimes were stealing, assault, or murder.

What was the difference between wealthy and poorcitizens under Roman law?

1) The poor, who were often not citizens,faced harsher punishments than the rich; sometimes even torture.

2) The rich were treated more leniently.

Where did the Roman godscome from?

A lot of them camefrom Greek gods and other cultures.

Whatrituals and offerings did the Romans do for their gods?

They often left gifts of food,such as honey cakes and fruit. They also sacrificed animals, including bulls,sheep, and oxen.

a. What were some differences between a wealthy andpoor family?

In poor families the man and the woman worked. In richfamilies, the men had political families and the women hung around and boughtperfume.

Describe some food eaten byboth poor and wealthy citizens.

Breads, beans,spices, a few vegetables, cheeses, and meat.

What is a thermopolia?

The poor cooked on small grillsand depended on “fast-food” places called thermopolia wherepeople could buy hot and cold foods that were ready to eat. Even the richoften bought their daytime meals at thermopolia because the service was fastand convenient.

What was a typical home fora wealthy Roman?

Wealthy Romans livedin grand houses built of stone and marble.

What was a typical home fora poor Roman?

The poor lived incramped wood apartments that easily caught fire from their cooking grills thatthey had in their house in replacement of kitchens.

Who received education?

Rich boys and girlswere tutored when they were young and then the boys went off to school to get aproper education.

What kind of education did the Roman children get?

Romanboys learned Latin, Greek, math, science, literature, music, and publicspeaking. They typically became soldiers, doctors, politicians, orlawyers. Girls might become dentists, real estate agents, or tutors. Some female slaves orfreedwomen could become midwives (nurses who helped with childbirth).

What is a villa?

A country estate withlarge homes that the wealthy owned.