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145 Cards in this Set

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Gone With the Wind
1939 - Starring Clark Gable and Vivien Leigh - films like this offered pure escape from the realities of the Depression.
Dust Bowl
Region of the Great Plains that experienced a drought in 1930 lasting for a decade, leaving many farmers without work or substantial wages.
The Good Earth
The long-missing original manuscript of this Pulitzer Prize winning novel by Pearl S. Buck was found in 2006.
The Grapes of Wrath
The story follows the fortunes of a poor family as they travel from the Dust Bowl region to California. based on the great depression written by John Steinbeck
a style of jazz played by big bands popular in the 1930s
Invasion from Mars
Panic from War of the Worlds, people thought it was real, reaction suggested powerful media effects.
Hawley-Smoot Tariff
charged a high tax for imports thereby leading to less trade between America and foreign countries along with some economic retaliation
migrants from Oklahoma to California during the dust bowl
Bonus Expeditionary Force
Thousands of World War I veterans, who insisted on immediate payment of their bonus certificates, marched on Washington in 1932; violence ensued when President Herbert Hoover ordered their tent villages cleared.
Buying on margin
Purching stock with a little money down with the promise of paying the balance at sometime in the future
Reconstruction Finance Corporation
RFC was an independant agency of the United States government. It granted over 2 billion dollars to the local and state governments. It was charted under the Herbert Hoover administration.
National Recovery Administration: established and adminstered a system of industrial codes to control production, prices, labor relations, and trade practices
Civilian Conservation Corps. It was Relief that provided work for young men 18-25 years old in food control, planting, flood work, etc.
Huey Long
nicknamed The Kingfish, was an American politician from the U.S. state of Louisiana. A Democrat, he was noted for his radical populist policies. He served as Governor of Louisiana from 1928 to 1932 and as a U.S. senator from 1932 to 1935. Though a backer of Franklin D. Roosevelt in the 1932 presidential election, Long split with Roosevelt in June 1933 and allegedly planned to mount his own presidential bid.
John Maynard Keynes
British economist who argued that for a nation to recovery fully from a depression, the govt had to spend money to encourage investment and consumption
Herbert Hoover
President from 1929 to 1933, called on businesses to help solve the situation rather than the government. Americans felt he did little to help them.
The Tennessee Valley Authority federation was created in 1933 in order to provide navigation, flood control, electricity generation, fertilizer manufacturing, and economic development in the Tennessee Valley, a region particularly impacted by the Great Depression
established by WPA to reduce competition for jobs by supporting education and training of youth
the government agency that insures customer deposits if a bank fails
Agricultural Adjustment Administration: attempted to regulate agricultural production through farm subsidies; ruled unconstitutional in 1936; disbanded after World War II
Social Security
An act passed in 1935 gave government-payed pensions to American citizens over the age 65 as well as provided help for the unemployed, the disabled, and the needy.
American Federation of Labor. A union of skilled workers from one or more trades which focused on collective bargaining (negotiation between labor and management) to reach written agreements on wages hours and working conditions. The AFL used strikes as a major tactic to win higher wages and shorter work weeks.
Congress of Industrial Organizations. proposed by John L. Lewis in 1932. a federation of unions that organized workers in industrial unions in the United States and Canada from 1935 to 1955.
John L. Lewis
President of the United Mine Workers, combined with seven other American Federation of Labor organizations to form the Committee for Industrial Organization. Wanted to bring together all of the unskilled workers together to mass-production industries
Harry Hopkins
A New York social worker who headed the Federal Emergency Relief Administration and Civil Works Administration. He helped grant over 3 billion dollars to the states wages for work projects, and granted thousands of jobs for jobless Americans. p778
Harold Ickes
Secretary of the interior who headed the Public Works Administration, which aimed at long-range recovery by spending over $4 billion on some 34,000 projects that included public buildings, highways, and parkways
Benny Goodman
United States clarinetist who in 1934 formed a big band (including Black as well as White musicians) and introduced a kind of jazz known as swing (1909-1986)
Scottsboro boys
Nine young black men between the ages of 13 to 19 were accused of of raping two white women by the names of Victoria Price and Ruby Bates. All of the young men were charged and convicted of rape by white juries, despite the weak and contradictory testimonies of the witnesses
George S. Patton
Allied Commander of the Third Army. Was instrumental in winning the Battle of the Bulge. Considered one of the best military commanders in American history.
Franklin D. Roosevelt
often referred to by his initials FDR, was the thirty-second President of the United States. Elected to four terms in office, he served from 1933 to 1945, and is the only U.S. president to have served more than two terms of office. He was a central figure of the 20th century during a time of worldwide economic crisis and world war.
Eleanor Roosevelt
FDR's Wife and New Deal supporter. Was a great supporter of civil rights and opposed the Jim Crow laws. She also worked for birth control and better conditions for working women
Work Progress Administration: Massive work relief program funded projects ranging from construction to acting; disbanded by FDR during WWII
a policy of nonparticipation in international economic and political relations
Neutrality Acts
Originally designed to avoid American involvement in World War II by preventing loans to those countries taking part in the conflict; they were later modified in 1939 to allow aid to Great Britain and other Allied nations.
Benito Mussolini
Fascist dictator of Italy (1922-1943). He led Italy to conquer Ethiopia (1935), joined Germany in the Axis pact (1936), and allied Italy with Germany in World War II. He was overthrown in 1943 when the Allies invaded Italy. (p. 786)
A system of government characterized by strict social and economic control and a strong, centralized government usually headed by a dictator. First found in Italy by Mussolini.
policy adopted by the United States in 1939 to preserve neutrality while aiding the Allies. Britain and France could buy goods from the United States if they paid in full and transported them.
Total war
A war that involves the complete mobilization of resources and people, affecting the lives of all citizens in the warring countries, even those remote from the battlefields.
Concentration camp
a camp where prisoners of war, political prisoners, or members of minority groups are confined, typically under harsh conditions
first generation Japanese immigrants
Japanese naturalized or native born citizens to the US
G.I. Bill
Provided for college or vocational training for returning WWII veterens as well as one year of unemployment compensation. Also provided for loans for returning veterens to buy homes and start businesses.
policies, views, or actions that harm or discriminate against Jews
Lend-Lease Act
allowed sales or loans of war materials to any country whose defense the president deems vital to the defense of the U.S
Winston Churchill
A noted British statesman who led Britain throughout most of World War II and along with Roosevelt planned many allied campaigns. He predicted an iron curtain that would separate Communist Europe from the rest of the West.
Joseph Stalin
Russian leader who succeeded Lenin as head of the Communist Party and created a totalitarian state by purging all opposition
Munich Conference
1938 conference at which European leaders attempted to appease Hitler by turning over the Sudetenland to him in exchange for promise that Germany would not expand Germany's territory any further.
naval battle of World War II (June 1942)
Douglas MacArthur
United States general who served as chief of staff and commanded Allied forces in the South Pacific during World War II
Women's Army Corps; had about 140,000 members; including nurses; female officers were not allowed to command men; banned from combat duty.
D-Day (June 6, 1944)
Allies crossed the English Channel and landed in Normandy, France. The largest land-sea-air operation in history launched to liberate Europe.
Yalta Conference
FDR, Churchill and Stalin met at Yalta. Russia agreed to declare war on Japan after the surrender of Germany and in return FDR and Churchill promised the USSR concession in Manchuria and the territories that it had lost in the Russo-Japanese War
Rosie the Riveter
A propaganda character designed to increase production of female workers in the factories. It became a rallying symbol for women to do their part.
Zoot Suite riots
a series of riots in 1943 during World War II that exploded in Los Angeles, California between white sailors and Marines stationed throughout the city and Latino youths, who were recognizable by the zoot suits they favored
George C. Marshall
Secretary of State, invited the Europeans to work out a joint plan for their economic recovery, offered financial aid to the Soviet Union and its allies
John L. Lewis
He was a miner known for creating the United Mine Workers. He helped found the CIO and was responsible for the Fair Labor Standards Act.
Leslie Groves
(1) Army general in charge of the Manhattan Project; (2) later in charge of design of the Pentagon home to the military and the Defense Department (though only 5 stories tall--and thus less susceptible to attack--the Pentagon is by floor surface area the largest office building in the world)
Manhattan Project
Code name for the U.S. effort during World War II to produce the atomic bomb. Much of the early research was done in New York City by refugee physicists in the United States.
a port city on the southwestern coast of Honshu in Japan
El Alamein
Town in Egypt, site of the victory by Britain's Field Marshal Bernard Montgomery over German forces led by General Erwin Rommel (the 'Desert Fox') in 1942-1943. (p. 793)
Chester Nimitz
Nimitz served as an Admiral in the Battle of Midway in 1942. He commanded the American fleet in the Pacific Ocean and learned the Japanese plans through "magic" decoding of their radio messages. With this intercepted information, Nimitz headed the Japanese off and defeated them.
the place at which the three allied leaders, Truman, Stalin, and Atlee, met to discuss the distribution of Germany and the ultimatum that they would issue to Japan demanding thier immediate surrender
City where Stalin, Roosevelt, Churchill met to plan a second front to divert the Germans from Russia
Beach in France Allies Invaded,Codenamed Operation Overlord, it was the long awaited Allied invasion of France and the opening of the Second Front during World War II. The initial invasion began on June 6, 1944.
City in Russia, site of a Red Army victory over the Germany army in 1942-1943. The Battle of Stalingrad was the turning point in the war between Germany and the Soviet Union. Today Volgograd. (p. 793)
"Lighting war", typed of fast-moving warfare used by German forces against Poland n 1939
Third Reich
The Third Republic of Germany which began Hitler's rule in 1933 and ended with his defeat in 1945
Francisco Franco
Spanish General; organized the revolt in Morocco, which led to the Spanish Civil War. Leader of the Nationalists - right wing, supported by Hitler and Mussolini, won the Civil War after three years of fighting.
George Patton
Known as "Old Blood and Guts," George S. Patton, Jr. was one of the most colorful generals of World War II. During World War II he served in North Africa and Sicily before becoming the commander of the Third Army.
"I shall return"
Gen. Douglas MacArthur on leaving the Philippines during WWII. He did return in triumph after defeating the Japanese in the Pacific.
Non-agression Pact of 1939
Deal between Hitler and Stalin recognizing territorial perogatives of each other; Hilter=west half Poland, Stalin=east half Poland; US surprised and disturbed because hoped the two would never come together
German conquests
Poland, France, Belgium, Austria, Norway, Finland, Denmark
Battle of Britain
an aerial battle fought in World War II in 1940 between the German Luftwaffe (air force), which carried out extensive bombing in Britain, and the British Royal Air Force, which offered successful resistance.
Turing points of the war
needs to be filled
Leo Szilard
leading physicsist in the Manhattan Project, came up with the petition signed by 70 other scientists argueing that it would be immoral to drop an atomic bomb on Japan without fair warning
Albert Einstein
This 20th Century scientist revolutionized the way scientists thought about space, time and matter, the most notable being his theory of relativity.
Enrico Fermi
Italian nuclear physicist (in the United States after 1939) who worked on artificial radioactivity caused by neutron bombardment and who headed the group that in 1942 produced the first controlled nuclear reaction (1901-1954)
Tony MacAuliffe
need to fill
Japanese Island, 300 miles from mainland. Captured by American forces just as German forces collapsing in Spring of 1945 in Europe. From newly won bases such as this and Saipan and Iowa Jima and from aircraft carriers in Pacific, the Americans began a campaign of heavy bombing of Japanese mainland.
Thomas Dewey
He was the Governor of New York (1943-1955) and the unsuccessful Republican candidate for the U.S. Presidency in 1944 and 1948. As a leader of the liberal faction of the Republican party he fought the conservative faction led by Senator Robert A. Taft, and played a major role in nominating Dwight D. Eisenhower for the presidency in 1952.
Erwin Rommel
"Desert Fox"-May 1942; German and Italian armies were led by him and attacked British occupied Egypt and the Suez Canal for the second time; were defeated at the Battle of El Alamein; was moved to France to oversee the defenses before D-Day; tried to assassinate Hitler.
Harry S Truman
elected Vice President in Roosevelt's 4th term
Cold War
This period of time following World War II is where the United States and the Soviet Union emerged as superpowers and faced off in an arms race that lasted nearly 50 years.
greatly restricts the activities and power of labor unions and was aka The Labor-Management Relations Act, goes against Wagner Act (which gave more power to unions), This labor bill, passed over Truman's veto, prohibited the "closed shop," making life more difficult for labor unions and easier for management
Truman Doctrine
First established in 1947 after Britain no longer could afford to provide anti-communist aid to Greece and Turkey, it pledged to provide U.S. military and economic aid to any nation threatened by communism.
southern Democrats who opposed Truman's position on civil rights. They caused a split in the Democratic party.
Munich analogy
A belief among post-World War II leaders, particularly Americans, that aggression must always be met firmly and that appeasement will only encourage an aggressor. Named for the concessions made to Hitler by Great Britain and France at Munich during the 1938 Czechoslovakian crisis.
a policy of creating strategic alliances in order to check the expansion of a hostile power or ideology or to force it to negotiate pecefully
"Long Telegram"
The message written by George Kennan in 1946 to Truman advising him to contain Communist expansion. Told Truman that if the Soviets couldn't expand, their Communism would eventually fall apart, and that Communism could be beaten without going to war.
Marshall Plan
a United States program of economic aid for the reconstruction of Europe (1948-1952)
North Atlantic Treaty Organization; an alliance made to defend one another if they were attacked by any other country; US, England, France, Canada, Western European countries
a congressional committee that investigated commmunist influence inside and outside the us gov. after wwii
The term associated with Senator Joseph McCarthy who led the search for communists in America during the early 1950s through his leadership in the House Un-American Activities Committee.
Fair Deal
Truman's extension of the New Deal that increased min wage, expanded Social Security, and constructed low-income housing
National Securtiy Council memo #68 US "strive for victory" in cold war, pressed for offensive and a gross increase ($37 bil) in defense spending, determined US foreign policy for the next 20-30 yrs
Checkers speech
A speech made by vice presidential candidate Richard Nixon in 1952 after he had been accused of improprieties regarding a fund established for him to reimburse him for his political expenses. In it, he said that he defended himself and said regardless of what everyone else thought, he would keep a dog that his kids had named checkers. It led to an outpouring of support for Nixon and it secured his place on the republican ticket for the 1952 election.
Robert Taft
Senator, son of president William Taft. Isolationist up until Pearl Harbor. Didn't like NATO (text in reader). Ran for President. Eisenhower ran against him because he didn't want isolationism to rise again- dying breed of isolationism.
Winston Churchill
A noted British statesman who led Britain throughout most of World War II and along with Roosevelt planned many allied campaigns. He predicted an iron curtain that would separate Communist Europe from the rest of the West.
George F. Kennan
an American advisor, diplomat, political scientist, and historian, best known as "the father of containment" and as a key figure in the emergence of the Cold War. He later wrote standard histories of the relations between Russia and the Western powers.
New country created after WWI. Was split off from Austria as a punishment. Somewhat weak and unstable on its own- filled with lots of different ethnicities. (Just one of the new independent, internally-divided, weak states created at the Peace of Paris in 1919. The existence of these was another factor in the instability of Europe that made it so easy to takeover in WW2.)
Berlin Blockade
The blockade was a Soviet attempt to starve out the allies in Berlin in order to gain supremacy. The blockade was a high point in the Cold War, and it led to the Berlin Airlift.
Bernard Beruch
The leader of the WIB (War industries board), who was a Wall Street investment broker. He directed an agency that set high prices for food in order to "conserve" it.
Alger Hiss
was a U.S. State Department official involved in the establishment of the United Nations. He was accused of being a Soviet spy in 1948 and convicted of perjury in connection with this charge in 1950
Syngman Rhee
Korean leader who became president of South Korea after World War II and led Korea during Korean War.
Henry Wallace
A former Democratic who ran on the New Progressive Party due to his disagreement on Truman's policy with the Soviets. He caused the Democratic party to split even more during the election season.
Oil-rich middle eastern nation that became an early focal point of Soviet-American conflict
Turkey and Greece
countries United States first apply the Truman Doctrine, which stated that the U.S. would provide military and economic assistance to any nation under the threat of communism
Jackie Robinson
The first African American player in the major league of baseball. His actions helped to bring about other opportunities for African Americans.
McCarran Act
United States federal law that required the registration of Communist organizations with the Attorney General in the United States and established the Subversive Activities Control Board to investigate persons thought to be engaged in "un-American" activities, including homosexuals
Dien Bien Phu
In 1954, Vietminh rebels besieged a French garrison at Dien Bien Phu, deep in the interior of northern Vietnam. In May, after the United States refused to intervene, Dien Bien Phu fell to the communists.
Baby Boomers
The 78 million people born during the baby boom, following World War II and lasting until the early 1960s
Joseph McCarthy
United States politician who unscrupulously accused many citizens of being Communists (1908-1957)
Dwight D. Eisenhower
He was the U. S. general who led the attack in North Africa in Nov. of 1942.He was the master organizer of the D-Day invasion in Europe (June 6, 1944). He ran for the Republican ticket in the 1952 and the1956 elections and won. He was very well liked by the public.
Billy Graham
One of the most popular evangelical ministers of the era. Star of the first televised "crusades" for religious revival. He believed that all doubts about the literal interpretation of the bible were traps set by Satan. He supported Republicans and a large increase to money in the military.
Nikita Khrushchev
Ruled the USSR from 1958-1964; lessened government control of soviet citizens; seeked peaceful coexistence with the West instead of confrontation
Interstate Highway Act
1956 Eisenhower 20 yr plan to build 41,000 mi of highway, largest public works project in history
The principle of not backing down in a crisis, even if it meant taking the country to the brink of war. Policy of both the U.S. and U.S.S.R. during the Cold War.
Covert operations
secret activities undertaken by a state outside its borders through clandestine means to achieve specific political or military goals with respect to another state
Open Skies
Eisenhower's proposal that US and Soviet disarmament be verified by reconnaissance flights over each other's territory.
a high-altitude US reconnaissance plane that took photographs of the Soviet Union from June 1956 until one was shot down in May 1960
Eisenhower Doctrine
Eisenhower proposed and obtained a joint resolution from Congress authorizing the use of U.S. military forces to intervene in any country that appeared likely to fall to communism. Used in the Middle East.
First artificial Earth satellite, it was launched by Moscow in 1957 and sparked U.S. fears of Soviet dominance in technology and outer space. It led to the creation of NASA and the space race.
Sunbelt phenomenon
The movement of millions of Americans from northern and northeastern States to the South and Southwest regions(Sunbelt) of the United States.
a United States youth subculture of the 1950s that rebelled against the mundane horrors of middle class life.
St. Lawrence Seaway
system of locks, canals, and dams that allows ships to move from one water level to another completed in 1959; makes it easier to move goods from the US to Canada
John Foster Dulles
United States diplomat who (as Secretary of State) pursued a policy of opposition to the USSR by providing aid to American allies (1888-1959)
Jacobo Arbenz Guzman
reformer who was president of guatemala from 1951 to 1954 thanks to United Fruit Company's coup
Capital of Lebanon. Known as the "Paris of the Middle East" - Labanon fell apart in 1975 in a civil war that wrecked Beirut.
Gary Powers
CIA Pilot; flew the U-2 spyplane & taken prisoner by the Soviets when it was shot down; Soviets sentenced him to 3 years in prison and 7 years in forced labor, which was pretty much a death sentence; US later traded a captured Soviet spy in order to get him back
South Vietnam
a former country in southeastern Asia that existed from 1954 (after the defeat of the French at Dien Bien Phu) until 1975 when it was defeated and annexed by North Vietnam
a government on the island of Taiwan established in 1949 by Chiang Kai-shek after the conquest of mainland China by the communists led by Mao Zedong
During the Vietnam War Hanoi's transportation facilities were disrupted by the bombing of bridges and railways, which were, however, promptly repaired. Capital of North Vietnam.
Jack Kerouac
United States writer who was a leading figure of the beat generation (1922-1969). Wrote "On the Road", which epitomized the Beat Generation of the late 1940s and early 1950s.
Roy Rogers
TV cowboy in the 50's, spends the entire show saving his new girlfriend with his horse Trigger
represent Americanism
Kennedy/Nixon Debates
first televised debate, poll results from this debate illustrated the visual power of television in American politics....people listening to the radio gave edge to Nixon and people watching television thought Kennedy won
Peace Corps
(JFK) , volunteers who help third world nations and prevent the spread of communism by getting rid of poverty, Africa, Asia, and Latin America
Bay of Pigs
In April 1961, a group of Cuban exiles organized and supported by the U.S. Central Intelligence Agency landed on the southern coast of Cuba in an effort to overthrow Fidel Castro. When the invasion ended in disaster, President Kennedy took full responsibility for the failure.
Space race
a competition of space exploration between the United States and Soviet Union
Ngo Dinh Diem
American ally in South Vietnam from 1954 to 1963; his repressive regime caused the Communist Viet Cong to thrive in the South and required increasing American military aid to stop a Communist takeover. he was killed in a coup in 1963.
In foreign affairs, the isolation of a nation, carried out by refusing to communicate or trade with it and by preventing other nations from doing so
Cuban Missile Crises
Cuba decides to buy nuclear weapons from the Soviet Union after openly declaring alliances with the Soviets. The United States learns of the deal and orders it to stop immediately. The United States decides to blockade Cuba and ultimately the transaction does not go through
CIA operation in which an army was trained to invade the nation because Eisenhower feared it had communist sympathizers; army's leader becomes dictator of the nation
Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) is a civilian intelligence agency of the United States government. Its primary function is obtaining and analyzing information about foreign governments, corporations, and persons in order to advise public policymakers