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46 Cards in this Set

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Cold War
a state of tension between countries in which each side adopts policies designed to strengthen itself and weaken the other, but falling short of an actual or "hot" war. The term is frequently used to describe the relationship that existed between the Allies and Russia between 1947 and 1989.
The spread of political, cultural, and economic influence and connections among countries around the world through trade, immigration, communication, and other means. In the late 20th century, globalization was intensified by new communications technology that connected individuals,
corporations, and nations with grater speed at lower prices. This led to an increase in political and economic interdependence and mutual influence among nations.
Provided for in Article I of the US Constitution. This is the method for removing political and judicial officers before the expiration of their terms. In the federal government it is
accompanied by the passage of an impeachment resolution by a majority vote of the House of
Representatives. Trial of impeachment proceedings is conducted by the Senate in which a 2/3’s vote is
necessary for REMOVAL.
What were the reasons that President George W. Bush decided on a pre-emptive strike against Iraq in 2003?
Bush believed that Iraq had weapons of mass destruction (chemical – poison gas; biological – anthrax). He also believed that Iraqi dictator Saddam Hussein had helped
Osama bin Laden plan the September 11, 2001 attacks in New York.
What were the unintended consequences of the 2003 war with Iraq?
(1) The war’s destruction hated by the Iraqi people;
(2) US soldiers seen as invaders, occupiers, not liberators;
(3) a powerful insurgency broke out causing thousands of American casualties;
(4) Since Iraq had been devastated by at least a decade of war and economic sanctions,
rebuilding the country was expensive for the US in the extreme.
T or F: After the American conquest of Iraq in 2003, investigators found that Saddam Hussein had weapons
of mass destruction, and that he had aided Osama bin Laden in the attack on New York City in
How did the collapse of the housing bubble provide the primary cause of the financial crisis of 2007-2010?
(1) Value of securities tied to housing prices plummeted, which damaged financial institutions
(primarily banks) globally;
(2) fears of bank solvency and decline in available credit caused large losses in stock markets
in 2008 and early 2009;
(3) Worldwide credit tightened and trade slowed by 25%.
ID Colin Powell
U.S. secretary of state under President George W. Bush,
former U.S. Army general, and chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff. When he became chairman of the Joint Chiefs in
1989, he was the youngest man and first African-American to hold the post. With Richard “Dick” Cheney, he co-directed Allied efforts in the 1991 PERSIAN GULF WAR. Although a life long Republican, he supported Barak Obama for President in 2008.
During the Bush administration, what became more innovative than the federal
(A) corporations.
(B) state legislatures.
(C) universities.
(D) Media outlets.
Factors, which were key to George H. W. Bush’s victory in the 1988 Presidential
(A) an expanding economy inherited from President Regan.
(B) vast government experience.
(C) both (A) and (B).
(D) neither (A) nor (B).
C- both A & B
Completion: As caretaker of Regan’s domestic policy, Bush offered little that was new. Critics claimed
that Bush’s domestic policy was his XXXXX, which he used thirty-six times against Democratic initiatives.
veto pen
What were the legislative and governmental achievements of the George H.W. Bush
(1) Clean Air Act of 1990 - - strongest and most comprehensive environmental law in history;
(2) Americans with Disabilities Act;
(3) extended the Voting Rights Act;
(4) fought deficit.
Completion: Due to the influence of Mikhail Gorbachev’s reform policy, popular uprising’s challenged Communist governments in Easter Europe and in most of these countries, the oppressive Soviet political regimes. In November 1989, the XXXX - - the symbol of the polarized cold war world - - began to be demolished. In 1990, the western and eastern parts of XXXXX were reunited.
Berlin Wall, Germany
What three Communist countries resisted the “liberalizing tide sweeping the world” in the 1980’s and 90’s?
(1) China,
(2) North Korea, and
(3) Cuba.
ID William Jefferson “Bill” Clinton
42nd president of the U.S. (1993-2001). After earning a degree in international affairs from Georgetown in 1968, Clinton attended Oxford University as a Rhodes scholar and Yale University Law School. In 1978, at age 32, Clinton became governor of Arkansas - - the youngest U.S. governor in 40 years. As governor (1979-93)
Clinton attracted national attention for his innovative programs to upgrade the state’s educational system. As the Democratic nominee for the presidency in the ELECTION of 1992, called for change in government and pledged to improve the economy. Clinton won the election by a wide margin of the electoral vote.
What were the legislative and governmental achievements of the Clinton administration?
(1) Gun control legislation,
(2) Family and Medical Leave Law,
(3) the Violence Against Women Act (1994),
(4) raising of the minimum wage,
(5) and improving college students’ access to federal loans.
President Bill Clinton’s cabinet was
(A) dominated by centerist Democrats from the South.
(B) Was remarkable for the equal number of Democrats and Republicans.
(C) the diverse in American History in terms of gender and ethnicity.
(D) almost a carbon copy of Jimmy Carter’s cabinet - - the last Democratic president before Clinton.
C- the diverse in American History in terms of gender and ethnicity.
During the Cold War the Communist government of Yugoslavia was able to control
ethnic tensions between XXX,XXX,XXX . After the fall of the Communist government,
Yugoslavia fragmented into separate states. The territory of Yugoslavia fell into bloody civil war, as ruthless political leaders exploited ethnic differences to bolster their power.
Serbs, Croats, and Muslims
President Clinton had two major achievements in reducing restrictions on international trade. In November 1993, Congress approved the XXXXXXX, a pact eliminating all
trade barriers and tariffs among the United States, Mexico, and Canada. In 1994, XXXXXX provided substantial tariff reductions and elimination of quotas on imports throughout the world.
North American Free Trade Act,
The General Agreement
of Tariffs and Trade
A combination of rising prices and economic stagnation.
Bill Clinton said during his election campaign in 1992 that no full-time American
worker should live in poverty. How did he remedy the reality of worker poverty in the U.S.?
The EARNED INCOME TAX CREDIT: The EITA gave the tax cuts to people who worked full-time at meager wages or if they paid no taxes a subsidy to lift their family income above the poverty line.
Bill Clinton's impeachment/removal from office
Bill Clinton was only the second American President to be impeached by the House of Representatives, however, neither was removed from office. At the beginning of Clinton’s presidency, charges including political use of FBI records and controversy over a family real estate deal led
to official investigations against the president. Even worse, he was also accused of sexual harassment. The most serious event occurred when Clinton’s liaison with Monica S. Lewinsky, a 21-year-old White House
intern, was revealed and the president tried to cover up the affair by lying about it to a federal grand jury. Kenneth W. Starr, an independent prosecutor, took the case to the House for impeachment. The House voted mostly along party lines to impeach the president on counts of perjury and obstruction of justice. Polls showed that many Americans felt that Clinton had made serious mistakes, but the majority did not want him removed from office. Ultimately, the Senate voted against impeachment.
President Clinton’s domestic scandals were counterbalanced by the greatest economic prosperity in the history of the United States. Nearly 13 million new jobs were created, unemployment drastically decreased, and the gross domestic product grew by more than one-third. The Clinton administration actively contributed to the economic success with an emphasis on XXXXX. Additionally, the computer revolution of the 1990’s supported economic development. People at all income levels enjoyed the gains of prosperity, and the poverty rate fell to 11.8 percent, but inequalities between XXXXXXXXX. Plus although more minorities than ever attained middle-class status, in general, people of color remained lowest on the economic ladder.
deficit reduction
(the national debt), the rich and everyone else remained.
Inequality (short answer)
In 1949, the richest 1% of American households had seen its share of the nation’s wealth dwindle to 20%. By 1997, the top 1%'s share had zoomed up
to 40%, nearly back to the record heights of the 1920’s. In 2000, the richest 400 Americans had an average annual income of $174,000,000; almost quadruple their earnings 8 years earlier.
"The Housing Bubble”
An inflation of prices based on delusion not reality. Americans bought houses in record numbers, and the nation began to believe that homes were great investments and their value would just keep on increasing. Acting on this belief, some people bought houses they could not afford and people used houses as collateral for loans. In the process, banks made loans they should not have made.
On September 11, 2001, terrorists crashed hijacked airplanes into the World Trade
Center in New York City and the Pentagon in Washington D.C. Nineteen members of Al Qaeda, an Islamic extremist terror group headed by Osama bin Laden, hijacked four planes and managed to deliver three of them to their targets. The fourth crashed into a field in Pennsylvania, killing everyone on board. The attacks killed more than XXXX people. Although Americans compromised the majority of the victims, citizens of over XX countries died in this violence. Al Qaeda attacked these symbols of American power and global trade in order to further the goal of bringing about war between XXXXXXX. The attacks of September 11 changed American thinking about the world in ways that were manifested in new domestic security laws and new wars in the Middle East.
2,000 , 60 , war between Islamic fundamentalists and the U.S.
Please give a brief but specific answer to the following question. According to your
book, what enraged the Islamic extremists who carried out the September 11, 2001 attacks
The increasing Americanization of the Muslim world and the ongoing Israeli-Palestinian conflict.
T or F: Believers in the doctrines of the Islamic radicals accepted terrorism as a legitimate tactic in their war against the U.S.
The attacks of September 11 provoked a strong response from the United States and a shifting coalition of allies. One month later, the United States and Britain began a campaign to overthrow the Taliban regime in Afghanistan, which harbored bin Laden. Although the allies routed the Taliban, XXXXXXXXXXXXXXX. Three years later, 12,000 American soldiers remained in Afghanistan fighting Islamic insurgents.
they could neither find bin Laden nor pacify Afghanistan.
Please discuss the George W. Bush doctrine of “preemptive action” or preemptive strikes”.
The doctrine of preemption departed from the earlier, multilateral approach to
war that retaliated against overt acts of aggression with help from other nations by declaring that the United States would start wars and do so according to its own assessment of threats. The doctrine of preemption found its best expression in America’s March 2003 invasion of Iraq. Although Iraq had not committed an overt hostile act against the United States, it’s leader, Saddam Hussein, was an outspoken critic of America who had a track record of aggression against his
neighbors. Bush said that Hussein possessed weapons of mass destruction and had helped Osama bin Laden plot the attacks of September 11. Hussein, therefore, constituted a threat to American security that had to be stopped. Although Britain made significant contributions to the Iraq invasion, and 30 other nations offered minor support, the United States fought the war without assistance from traditional allies such as France and Germany, and even with its coal
T or F: The over 1,000 Arabs and Muslims that Federal officials arrested after September 11, 2001, were all
formally charged with crimes in a short time, according to the due process of law.
What were the immediate and long-term results of the American attack on
Iraq in 2003?
The American attack quickly ousted Saddam Hussein, the brutal dictator of Iraq.
However, the unintended consequences were great. While most Iraqis celebrated the end of Hussein’s terrible regime, they also hated the destruction that the war had brought to their country, and saw
U.S. troops as hostile invaders occupying their homeland. A powerful anti-American insurgency spread after Hussein’s fall and produced more U.S. and Iraqi casualties that had been lost in the initial invasion. Lacking the high levels of allied support that had helped win the Gulf War of 1991,
American had to rely mostly on its own resources to rebuild a country devastated in the prior decade by two wars, economic sanctions, and the corrupt Hussein government. The United States suffered additional blows to its international standing by its failures to find weapons of mass destruction or connections between Hussein and Osama bin Laden that the Bush administration has trumpeted in its efforts to win support for the war. The war is al
The collapse of a global housing bubble, which peaked in the
U.S. in 2006, caused the values of securities tied to housing prices to plummet thereafter, damaging financial institutions globally. Questions regarding bank solvency, declines in credit availability, and damaged investor confidence had an impact on global stock markets, which suffered large losses during late 2008 and early 2009. Economies worldwide slowed during this period as credit tightened and international trade declined. Critics argued that credit rating agencies and investors failed to
accurately price the risk involved with mortgage-related financial products that that government did not adjust their regulatory practices to address 21st century financial markets.
The immediate cause or trigger of the crisis was the bursting of the United States housing bubble, which peaked in approximately 2005-2006. High default rates on “subprime” and adjustable rate mortgages (ARM), began to increase thereafter. As part of this housing bubble, the
The Presidential Election of 2008:
The son of a black, Kenyan, father and a white, American, mother; Barak Obama invoked the image of a diverse America. Calling for change and the end to the Iraq
war, Obama attracted the votes of independents, young voters, and first time voters to defeat Hilary Clinton in one of the toughest and closest battles in the history of American primaries. Obama thus became the first African-American presidential candidate of a major political party.
Obama’s opponent, Senator John McCain of Arizona, seemed much more a candidate of the status quo. The second-oldest and major party nominee in American history, the 72-year-old McCain was a
generation older than the 47-year-old Obama. The intensification of the economic crisis in October mortally wounded the Republican cause. Saddled with the unpopular wars and weak economy of the Bush administration, McCain seemed old and uncertain. Meanwhile, many voters were impressed by Obama’s cool performance
Two hundred forty-one U.S. peacekeeping troops killed in terrorist bombing, 1983
U.S.-led war removes the Taliban government from power, 2001-2002
Seventeen U.S. sailors killed in terrorist attack on U.S.S. Cole, 2000
U.S. citizens held hostage in American embassy, 1979-1981
Nation invaded by Iraq in 1990 that led to Persian Gulf War

Why did George H. W. Bush lose the presidency in 1992?
find out
What policies of Clinton's reflected his efforts to move right?
The government had surpluses.

Abolish restrictions on gays in military= "dont ask dont tell." Clinton signed the Defensive

Marriage Act: if any state recognizes gay marriage than that marriage ISNT recognized by federal government.

He signed a law eliminating AFDC: aid to families with dependent children. Made in the Great Depression because men left their families.
Who criticized free trade agreements and why?
labor unions: said it elimated high paying jobs
environmentalists: ??
Do gun control laws reduce crime?
NO there are already too many guns out in the U.S.
Does wealth create poverty?
redistribute wealth (Roosevelts approach)

Create more wealth (Clinton's failed approach)

= NO real answer; just opinions
Can we build a nation?