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59 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
What did Watson and Crick make in 1953
the human genome project
what is conducted on individuals who are at a higher than average risk of carrying or having a genetic problem
genetic testing
what is conducted on an entire population including individuals at low risk for the targeted genetic disease, defect or disorder
genetic screening
what method enables physicians to test the genetic condition of twelve-cell preembyro before it is transferred from the petri dish to a woman's womb
preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PIGD)
What is the most commonly used prenatal genetic diagnosis (PGD)
analysis of the fetal tissues via amniocentesis and/or chorionic villus sampling (CVS)
What kind of testing/screening aims to uncover genetic diseases before symptoms appear
presymptomatic testing/screening - used for huntington's
what is a false positive
saying a condition is present when it is actually absent
what is a false negative
saying a condition is absent when it is actually present
what is the private-sector Tay-Sachs carrier-screening program called
Dor Yeshorim
what healthcare system averages a particular community's losses and determines a fair rate for a geographic area
community-rating system
name the healthcare system that charges different prices to different individuals depending on their health status, or even refuses to insure individuals who need or will need expensive healthcare
risk-based system
what act requires employers to make 'resonable accommodations' for employees with disabilities
American Disabilities Act (ADA)
What are Morton Hunt's dilemmas reguarding confidentiality
equal opportunity vs health protection
equal opportunity vs free enterprise
fairness to the handicapped vs the greatest happiness of the greatest number
individual freedom vs social control
knowledge vs privacy/paternalism vs autonomy
What was the tv anchorwoman Bree Walker's contraversy over
she had ectrodactyly and decided to continue her pregnancy of a fetus with the same condition. she was called irresponsible by viewers
What was the contraversy of Shauna Curlender over
she was born with Tay-Sachs when her parents were told they were not carriers of the gene
what is the interaction between a healthcare provider and a patient or family member on concerns about the birth of a child with medical problems, reproductive testing options, a family history of ill health, or the diagnosis of an inherited condition called
genetic counseling
what are the different kinds of research done fetuses
in utero intended for birth
in utero intended for abortion
ex utero on living, though nonviable fetuses
using fetal tissue from dead, aborted fetuses to treat living persons
what are the different kinds of research done on preembryos
preembryos destined for implantation and preembyros not destined for implantation: stem-cell research, including therapeutic cloning
what happened in Nov 1998 by a research group headed by Dr. James Thomson at University of Wisconsin
a success in culturing human embryonic stem cells which had been derived from unused IVF preembyros
preembyros created by what have the greatest therapeutic potential because they can be used to grow cells thoroughly compatible with the patient's cells- its a form of cloning
somatic cell transfer (SCNT)
What did Dr. Ian Wilmut and his colleges create
Dolly- died in 2003
what are some concerns on why not to clone
lack of individuality
lack of autonomy
may lead to objectification or instrumentalization of children
what is the gestating of human beings ex utero in an artifical placenta promoted by Peter Singer and Deane Wells's book "Making Babies: The New Science and Ethics of Conception"
On what aspect did Daniel Callahan stress that the US healthcare should be limited on
what are the ways to bring about death
1. withholding- noting giving care
2. withdrawing- stopping care
3. pain meds- shortening life but helping pain
4. physician assisted suicide
5. direct euthenasia
out of the 5 ways to bring about death which are moral and legal
the first 3
1. withholding- noting giving care
2. withdrawing- stopping care
3. pain meds- shortening life but helping pain
what are the standards of judgment
substituted judgement- this is what i would do
best interest- we dont know
reasonable person- disagreements
professional- not patient centered
what are the kinds of death
brain stem -pvs
what is the letting to die which usually involves an instance of withholding or withdrawing a life-sustaining treatment for a patient?
passive euthanasia
what occurs when competent adult patients ask their health care professionals to withhold or withdraw one or more life-sustaining treatments from them
voluntary passive euthanasia
What was the case that the New Jersey Supreme Court later overturned the lower court's ruling on the grounds that the constitutional right to privacy covers the decisions of formerly competent patients whose legal surrogates may speak for them when they can no longer speak for themselves. The father had the respirator removed but they continued to breathe on their own.
Karen Ann Quinlan Case.
1970s-combo of alcohol and barbiturates =>PVS
What case was about a 7-year PVS patient's parents that wanted to withdraw the feeding tube. The court found the family's testimony compelling and ruled that there was "clear and convincing" evidence that the patient would want their feeding tube removed if they were able to speak for themselves. they died 12 days after the feeding tube was removed
Nancy Cruzan Case.
1983 automobile collision =>PVS
Missouri Rehab Center
what case was about a 1993 automobile accident patient where they started to recover a little bit such as throw a ball but then got much worse (could not speak) until the point where the hospital ethics committee wanted their feeding tube removed. the mother and sister had been left out of the decision-making. Court observed the "best interests standard and the substituted judgment standard." The court concluded neither applied in this case because there was not clear and convincing evidence and they were not terminally ill or in PVS.
Robert Wendland Case
what case was about a patient who was in a PVS after a 1990 heart attack. the husband won a 1992 lawsuit due to failure to see a potassium imbalance that caused the heart attack. In 1998 the husband wanted the feeding tube removed but the parents did not agree bc the husband now had a new family. The husband provided clear and convincing evidence that if she was able to speak for herself, his wife would ask to die. and the feeding tube was removed
Terri Schiavo - 2005
name four voluntary passive euthanasia court cases
Karen Ann Quinlan, Nancy Cruzan, Robert Wendland, Terri Schiavo
what involves incompetent patients whose treatment wishes are no known
non-voluntary passive euthanasia
what case involves a mother who wished to stop transfusing her son because he hated the treatments which would lengthen his life by only 3-6 months. her son had bladder cancer and was in his fifties with the mental age of 18 months. the court viewed this as ordinary care since he was seen as an infant rather than a man in his fifties.
John Storar case
what court case involved a patient who was in his late sixties with the mental age of a toddler who had no family and was suffering from leukemia. the court-appointed guardian petitioned that he not be given chemo bc in reality no one really cared about him and would struggle during treatment. the court ruled using the substituted judgement standard that if he were competent he would not want chemo bc the administration would be painful to him
Joseph Saikewicz case
what case involved an infant with Down Syndrome and an esophageal blockage whose parents as well as physician decided against surgery to remove the blockage. The federal government decided in 1983 to regulate withholding and withdrawing decisions for severely impaired newborns
In Re Guardianship of Infant Doe - 1982 case
what made it unlawful for any institution recieving ferderal money to withhold beneficial treatment from an infant with serious disabilities solely on account of its condition
Rehabilitation Act of 1973
what court case involved a husband who stated that his wife, while still competent, said that she would want any and every treatment available no matter what. she fell into a PVS. physicians contested her husband's guardianship of her and that he was not able to make good decisions for her. she then died while the court was in process
Helga Wanglie - 1987
What lawyer stated that patients have no right to demand medically nonbeneficial treatment from healthcare professionals. Patients' autonomy is not an absolute right in his estimation
Michael A. Rie
what is the taking of immediate, direct steps to end a person's life (administering a lethal injection, for example)
active euthanasia
what involves competent adult patients requesting their physician (or some other designated person) to directly and immediately end their lives because of their uncontrollable pain and enormous existential suffering
voluntary active euthanasia
what countries permit active euthanasia and physician-assisted suicide
netherlands, belgium, and switzerland
what involves physicians (or other healthcare professionals, family members or friends) making the decision to terminate the lives of incompetent patients who they think are in enormous unrelieved pain or suffering
non-voluntary active euthanasia
what is it when physicians (or other healthcare professionals, family members or even state authorities) make a decision to terminate the life of a competent patient who does not wish to die. (Murder)
involuntary active euthanasia
what is the difference between active euthanasia and physician-assisted suicide
during PAS the physician is not the direct cause of death, the patient is
who in 1990 installed a homemade suicide device in the back of his automobile van
Dr. Jack Kevorkian
What case involved a patient who was a quadriplegic with cerebral palsy. she did not eat in the hospital and the court ruled that the feeding tube that she did not want was forced intrusion against her will. she has the right to refuse treatment
Elizabeth Bouvia case
what are two advance care directives
living will and durable power of health care attorney
what is the term for transplantations between individuals who are not identical twins--became successful only after adequate antirejection drugs were developed
when and who did the first heart and liver transplants
heart- Dr. Christian Barnard
liver- Dr. Thomas Starzel
what requires that patients not be killed in order to obtain their organs
dead donor rule
what are uncontrolled and controlled Non-Heart-Beating Donors (NHBDs)
uncontrolled- heart stop spontaneously and without warning
controlled- heart stop because life-support machines were withdrawn from them-death is planned
With what act did the US Congress decide to fund all patients needing renal dialysis or renal transplantation
End-Stage Renal Disease Act of 1972
what encourages individuals to use government tax credits, tax deductions, or vouchers to purchase healthcare insurance at their workplace or in private market
private-market or tax credit/voucher remedy
what approach has the government becoming the sole payer for basic package of healthcare services and goods provided to all US citizens
national health insurance
what plan chose to eliminate funding for very costly organ transplants, including bone marrow transplants, in order to use the money saved for services such as prenatal care for over a thousand pregnant women who could not otherwise afford it
Oregon Plan