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112 Cards in this Set

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What important changes in the brain take place during infancy?
-changes in nervous system are rapid in first 2 years
-development of dendrites and synapses reaches first peak between 12-24 months
-pruning occurs
-Myelinization of nerves occurs rapidly during first 2 years
How do infants' reflexes and behavioral states change?
Adaptive: essential responses such as sucking

Primitive: the Moro (startle) and Babinski reflexes (curl toes, etc) which disappear within a few months

-Neonates move through a series of states of consciousness in a cycle that lasts about two hours
How do infants' body change, and what is the typical pattern of motor skill development in the first 2 years?
-bones increase in number and density
-muscle fibers become larger and contain less water
-stamina improves as lungs grow and the heart gets stronger
-Motor skills improve rapidly in first 2 yrs from "creeping", crawling, walking, running, and able to grasp objects
What are the nutritional needs of infants?
Breast feeding is better than bottle feeding
What are infants health care and immunization needs?
Babies need regular checkups and a variety of immunizations

-prompt treatment for respiratory infections is also crucial

-chronic ear infections common
What have researchers learned about SIDS?
-most common cause of death between 1 month- 1yr olds in the US

-Risk factors: sleeping on stomach, sleep apnea, exposure to tobacco smoke before and after birth, too warm of an enviro., poverty
How do infant mortality rates vary across groups?
-Black, Hawaiian American, and Native American children are more likely to die within first year than others
-Poverty= likely cause
-7/1000 babies die per year in US
How do infant's visual abilities change across the first months of life?
-rapid devel. of visual activity (20/200 vision)
-Color vision by 1 month (red blue green)
-Tracking: attention and memory to something. Slow moving objects before 2 months and skilled by 6-10 weeks
How do infant's senses of hearing, smell, taste, touch, and motion compare to those of older children and adults?
-Hearing: adult voices and directional loud-sound location
-Smelling and Tasting: react to each basic taste differently
-Touch/Motion: best and most developed sense
How do depth perception and patterns of looking change over the first two years?
-basic depth perception= present by 3 months
-use kinetic, binocular, and pictorial cues by 5-7 mon.
-Babies can discriminate mothers face from all other faces and moms voice as well directly after birth
How do infants perceive human speech, recognize voices and recognize sound patterns other than speech?
Birth: discriminate among speech contrasts present in all possible languages

1 yr: makes fine discriminations only among language they are hearing

6 mon: discriminate different patterns of sounds (melodies or speech inflections)
Intermodal Perception
Formation of single perception of stimulus that is based on information from 2 or more senses

-able to close eyes, feel and smell a cookie and understand that its a cookie
What are the milestones of Piaget's sensorimotor stage?
Primary circular reaction: simple repetitive actions with body (sucking thumb)

Secondary: Repeats action in order to trigger response outside of body (cooing which makes mom smile)

Tertiary: exploration of the environment

Object premanence

Means-end behavior: keep goal in mind and create plan to achieve it

Deferred imitation: childs imitation of some action at a later time
What are some challenges offered to Piaget's explanation of infant cognitive development?
Piaget underestimated the infants capabilities and degree to which concepts may be wired to the brain.
What does research tell us about infants understanding of objects?
developing object permanence= process of elaboration rather than rather than discovery

around 1 yr can use sufficiently across situations
What kinds of learning are infants capable of?
Classical/Operant conditioning and observing models

By 14 months more likely to imitate models that are competent
Learning
Permanent changes in behavior that result from experience
How does categorical understanding change over the first two years?
Infants use categories to organize info and over next 2 years, sophistication and understanding increases. (hierarchal/subordinate categories appear)
How does memory function in first 2 years?
3 and 4 month olds can remember things for a few days or even a week
What are the nativist, behaviorist, and interactionist explanations of language development?
B= learn thru parental reinforcement (Skinner)

N= innate language processor helps them learn language rules (Chomsky- kids say ranned instead of ran)

I= subprocess of cognitive development (includes internal and external influences)
Language
bridge btw social and cognitive development
Enviro. Influences on language develop.
-IDS (high-pitched infant-directed speech) attracts attention of kids to simple and repetitive expressions that adults use.

-Amnt of verbal interaction

-Poverty
How do infants sounds, gestures, and understanding of words change in the early months of life?
Birth= Cries
2 Months= Cooing
6 m= Babbling
9 m= Meaningful gestures and can understand small vocab spoken
Receptive Language
Ability to understand words

-begins at 8 months and
-9-10 m they can understand 20-30 words and
-13 m they have 100 words
Expressive Language
Ability to produce words

-12-13 m they begin to say words
-they learn in context with specific situations and cues
How does language development vary across cultures?
-early word learning follows similar patterns in all cultures

-word order of telegraphic speech depends on which language he is learning
How is intelligence measured in infancy?
Bayley Scales of Infant Development measures primary sensory and motor skills
Freud vs Ericksons views of personality development in the first 2 years
Freud: individual differences originate in the nursing and weaning practices of the infants mothers

Erikson: emphasized role of mother, father, and outside influences which instill a sense of trust concerning the social world. Trust vs Mistrust stage (monkeys and wire/cloth mothers)
Attachment Theory
-Evolutionary forces have endowed infants with genes that predispose them to form emotional bonds with their care givers.

-Ethologists argue= early emotional bonds are the foundation of later personality and social development.

-First 2 years of life= critical or sensitive period of development for attachment
Symbiotic relationship
mother and infant act as one
Ethological Perspective
all animals and humans have innate predispositions that strongly influence their devel.
Internal Model Elements
-childs confidence or lack there of that the attachment figure will be available or reliable

-expectation of rebuff or affection

-sense of assurance that the other is really a safe base for exploration

*affects memory and attention
Synchrony
-Mutual, interlocking pattern of attachment behaviors

-Fathers interact physically and mothers more caregiving
Four phases of attachment
1) Nonfocused orienting and signaling (birth-3m)

2) Focus on one or more figures (3-6m)

3) Secure base behavior (6-24m)

4) Internal model (24<)
Nonfocused orienting and signaling phase
Exhibit behaviors that draw attention to others and signal their needs, even strangers

-crying, smiling
Focus on one or more figures
-Direct "come here" signals to fewer people, usually the people they spend most time with and are less responsive to unfamiliar people.
Secure Base Behavior Phase
-Show proximity-seeking behaviors by being clingy especially when they are in survive mode to the primary caregiver
Internal Model
-can imagine how anticipated action might affect bonds with caregiver
Stranger anxiety
cling to mothers when strangers are present
Separation anxiety
when they cry or protest being separated from mother
Social Referencing
Use cues in facial expressions or tones of voice to determine how to handle novel situations
Four attachment patterns Ainsworth discovered (Strange Situation Experiment)
1) secure attachment: easily separates and explores but seeks out caregiver when in need

2) insecure/avoidant: aviods contact with mother, indifference towards preference of mother or stranger

3) insecure/ambivalent: needs caregiver to function, hates strangers

4) insecure/disorganized: confused and contradictory behavior patterns
Variables that affect ability to establish an attachment relationship with baby
-Emotional Availability: able and willing to form relationship

-Contingent Responsiveness: sensitive to childs cues and respond appropriately

-Marital status

-Age

-Mental Health
In what ways do patterns of attachment vary across cultures?
-Secure attachment is most common but cultures differ in frequency of diff types of insecure attachments
On which dimensions of temperment do most developmentalists agree?
-activity level: tendency to move often and vigorously

-approach/positive emotionality:move toward new things accompanied by positive emotion

-inhibition/anxiety: respond with fear to new things

-negative emotionality: respond with anger "difficult child"

-effortful control/task persistence: ability to stay focused
Subjective self
-figuring out that he is seperate from others and that this separate self endures over time and space

-fully emerged once object permanence is achieved
Objective self
-She is also an object in the world. Places self within descriptive categories
Emotional Self
-learn to identify changes in emotion expressed in others' faces
Why is it difficult to study the effects of nonparental care on development?
-there are so many types of nonparental care arrangements (raised by grandparents, receive day-care, etc)
Effects of non parental care
-over weight
-nonparental care can affect cognition positively or negatively depending on enviro.
What does research suggest about risks of nonparental care with respect to social development?
-home-care vs day-care has recieved mixed results regarding social develop.
-some say day-care kids are more aggressive, others dont
variables regarding research of nonparental care
-physiological response to stress
-quality vs quantity of care
-individual diff
Major Milestones of growth and development between 2 and 6
-physical devel.= slower than infancy but still steady
-improvement in gross motor skills (running, jumping)
-slower improvements in fine motor skills
What important changes happen in brain during these years?
-Changes in brain lateralization occur in early childhood
(specialization of left and right hemispheres)
-Handedness
Nutritional and health-care needs of young children
-slower rates of growth contribute to declines in apetite
-stress is a factor in early childhood illnesses such as colds and flu
-4-6 bouts of sickness per year
-25% of kids younger than 5 are in a car accident
What factors contribute to abuse/neglect
Abuse: physical/psychological injury resulting from adults intentions
-80% by parents
-under 3 yr= most vulnerable
-can be physical, sexual, or emotional

Neglect: when guardian doesnt provide necessary survival resources intentionally
Correlations of neglect and abuse
-low selfesteem
-aggression
-social difficulties
-insecure attachments
Preoperational stage
-uses mental symbols
-fooled by appearances
Centration
Tendency to think of world one variable at a time

-belief that inanimate objects are alive
Egocentrism
View things from own perspective
Conservation
change in appearance can occur without change in quantity (Poker chips)
Theory of Mind
Set of ideas constructed by a child or adult to explain other peoples ideas, beliefs, desires and behavior
Metamemory
knowledge about and control of memory processes
Metacognition
Knowledge about and control of thought process
Scripts
cognitive structures underlie behavior and emerge during middle childhood
Fast Mapping
Ability to link, categorically, new words to real world referents
-hypothesis of words based on context
Grammar explosion
Period when grammatical features of child speech becomes more adult-like
Phonological Awareness
Childs sensitivity to sound patterns that are specific to a language

-tied to literacy
Overextension
Child is using wrong words to describe things but is still logic
Invented spelling
strategy kids use with good phonological awareness skills while writing
Influences of Intelligence
Heredity
Family Influence
Physical Well-Being
Twin and adoptive studies
How did Freud and Erikson describe early childhood?
Freud: gain control over bodily functions and renegotiate parent relationships

Erikson: agreed with Freud but added focus on social skill development
What are the findings of social-cognitive theorists with respect to young childrens understanding of the social world?
-Advances in social and personality development are associated with cognitive development

-Persons perception, understanding others intentions and understanding rule categories
Persons Perception
Catgorize others based on observable characteristics
Understanding others intentions
Theory of mind
-Choices bound by consequences
Understanding Rule categories
social conventions and social rules

good vs bad
Temperment
How your engine runs
-genetic
How does temperment change in early childhood?
Temperments are modified by social experiences within and outside of family to form their personalities
Gender Schema Theory
development of gender schema underlies gender development and occurs with recognition of gender differences within themselves and others

1)label own gender
2)understand stability of gender
3)comprehend constancy of gender
How does attachment change in early years?
Secure vs insecure determines behavior problems or lack there of

-By age 4 they form goal-corrected partnerships
How do parenting styles affect childs development?
Authoritative: warmth, clear rules, communication with high maturity demands = best outcome

Authoritarian= some neg affects

Permissive/passive and uninvolved= worst outcome
How is family structure related to child devel.?
Any family that doesnt include two biological parents is linked to more negative outcomes
How does divorce affect childrens behavior?
-show disrupted behavior for several years

-parenting styles become less authoritative

-many effects of divorce are associated to problems that existed before divorce happened
What kinds of play are exibited in preschoolers?
-Play with peers is increasingly important
-spend some play observing others
-parallel play, associative play, cooperative play
Parallel Play
Playing alongside eachother but not interacting
Associative Play
includes some interaction
Cooperative Play
work together to accomplish goal
How do prosocial behavior and friendship patterns change during early childhood?
-prosocial behavior becomes more common as ability to take on others perseptions increase
-stable friendships develop
Physical changes in middle childhood
-steady and slow
-gain 2-3 inches in height and 6 lbs each year
-sex differences in bones and muscles lead boys and girls to do diff activities
How does brain change in middle childhood?
-major growth spurts
-improvements in selective attention, information-processing speed and spatial perception
3 most important health hazards for 6-12 yrs
-Benefit from health care
-head injuries, asthma and excessive weight gain
How does vocab change in midd child
-vocabulary growth
-improvements in grammar
-understanding social uses of language
Concrete operational stage
-can understand reversability (clay sausage can be turned back into a ball) and decentration (takes multiple variables into account)

-uses inductive logic (use her experience to general principle) but not deductive (start with principle and predict outcome)
Horizontal decalage
-kids dont master piagets concrete operational tasks at the same time

-operations migth be rules to solve problems
How does information-processing improve in middle childhood?
-speed and efficiency
What should be included in an effective literacy curriculum?
-need specific instruction in sound-symbol correspondences, word parts, and other aspects of written language

-need exposure to good literature and have opportunities to practice reading and writing skills
What kinds of group differences in achievement have researchers found?
-Boys do better in math, Girls better verbally

-ethnic diff (type of ed)

-western focuses on innate abilities

-eastern believes in hard work for achievment
Learning Disabilities
-Difficulty mastering specific academic skill
-They have normal intelligence and no physical/ sensory handicap

-Dyslexia
ADHD
Neurobiological disorder

-medication, parent-training and behavior modification help
How does Freud and Erikson characterize middle childhood
Freud: challenge is to from emotional bonds with peers and move beyond sole earlier formed bonds (latency stage)

Erikson: Challenge is to develop a sense of competence and willingness to work
Self Efficacy
If I try hard enough, I can achieve something
Big 5 personality traits
1)Extra/Intraversion: Where does your energy get revived the most? Around people or not?

2)Agreeableness:How easy going are you

3)Conscientiousness: Organization

4)Neuroticism: How linear is your thinking

5)Openness: open/closed to new things
Bandura and Reciprocal Determinism
-Person component (traits)
-Behavior
-Environment
---> Influence one another mutually
Psychological Self
persons understanding of his/ her enduring psychological characteristics
Key components to self concept
-Psychological self & self-efficacy

-discrepancy btw what the child desires and percieved achievment

-perceived support from important people
The Child as a Psychologist
-focuses on internal traits and motivation of others

-better understanding that same person plays different roles in life

-Less emphasis on external appearances
Moral Reasoning
-Ability to discern right from wrong is directly correlated to cognitive ability

-Moral Realism: black and white
-Moral Relativism: room for interpretation of rules
Parents roles in middle childhood
-most important influence
-recognize self regulalting ability of kids
-influenced by culture
-social issues around gender expectations: autonomy for boys and accountability for girls
-more socially competent kids when warm and demanding
Risk factors for vulnerability: Poverty
-more often ill
-lower IQ
-worse performance in school
-behavior probs
Protective factors: resiliency
-competent adult parenting
-effective schools
-secure initial attachment
-strong community
-stable parental employment
-strong sense of ethnic identity
TV is good if
-prosocial behavior
-moderation
-parental supervision
Solid foods
-doesnt help to sleep through night
-ready when baby can hold head upright
-sit with support
-shows interest in what youre eating