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98 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
What age does puberty start for females?
What age does puberty start for males?
Where does puberty start for both genders?
the brain
What are the physical Secondary Sex Characteristics for females (12)?
underarm hair and odor, breasts grow, hips widen, waist thins, menstruation occurs, pubic hair grows, formation of ova-egg cell, external genitals enlarge, hair growth on legs, increase in height, and smoother and softer skin
What are the emotional Secondary Sex Characteristics for females (3)?
mood swings, sexual arousal, and body image
What are the Secondary Sex Characteristics for males (13)?
broadened shoulders, facial hair grows, Adam's apple, voice deepens, underarm hair and odor, pubic hair grows, external genitals enlarge, production of sperm, ejaculation of semen, increase in height, skin becomes tough and thick, and bones get longer and heavier
What are the external female reproductive organs (5)?
vulva (mons veneris, labia majora, labia minora, clitoris, and hymen)
What are the internal female organs(5)?
uterus, cervix, ovaries, fallopian tubes, and vagina
What is the function of the uterus?
receives and supports a fertilized egg for pregnancy
What is the function of the cervix?
connects the uterus to the vagina
What is the function of the ovaries?
produce ova and estrogen
What is the function of the fallopian tubes?
connect the ovaries and uterus
What is the function of the vagina?
birthing canal for childbirth, sexual intercourse, and menstrual flow
What is the path way of an ovum?
An ovum is released from one of the two ovaries. The ovum travels through the fallopian tube. If is fertilized by a sperm cell, it travels to the uterus and attaches to the uterine wall. If it is not fertilized, it will travel through the uterus, cervix and vagina, and exits the body. This occurs every month resulting in a menstrual flow.
What is the first stage of the menstrual cycle?
Day 1-5: menstruation flow
What is the second stage of the menstrual cycle?
Day 6-12: uterine lining thickens
What is the third stage of the menstrual cycle?
Day 13-14: ovulation
What is the fourth stage of the menstrual cycle?
Day 15-20: gland secretes hormone (Progesterone)
What is the fifth stage of the menstrual cycle?
Day 21-28: gland stops producing progesterone
What are menstrual cramps?
contractions of the uterus and tearing away of the uterine lining
How can a female reduce menstrual cramps (7)?
using a heating pad, warm baths, hot showers, exercise, medication, and staying away from caffeine and sodium
What is PMS?
Premenstrual syndrome is a combination of physical and emotional symptoms a week to 10 days before menstruation
What can a female do to relieve PMS (4)?
medication, exercise, and avoiding caffeine and sodium intake
What are symptoms of PMS (7)?
mood swings, cravings, bloating, depression, weight gain, anxiety, and swollen breasts
What are the ways to keep the female system healthy (5)?
cleanliness, sexual abstinence, treatment and medical care for infections, self exams/breast exams, and healthy medical checkups
What are the external reproductive organs for males?
scrotum and penis
What is the function of the scrotum?
regulates the temperature of the testes
What is the function of the penis?
allows sperm to leave the body through ejaculation
What are the internal reproductive organs for males (7)?
epididymis, vas deferens, seminal vesicles, prostate gland, urethra, cowper's gland, and testes
What is the function of the epididymis?
store and mature the sperm
What is the function of the vas deferens?
move the sperm from the epididymis to urethra
What is the function of the seminal vesicles?
provide source of energy for the active sperm
What is the function of the prostate gland?
provides a fluid that keeps the sperm alive
What is the function of the urethra?
carries urine and semen out of the body, but not at the same time
What is the function of the cowper's gland?
provides fluid that protects the sperm from acidic conditions, such as the urethra and vagina
What is the function of the testes or testicles?
produce testosterone and sperm
What is the path of a sperm?
The sperm is produced in the testes and is stored until it matures, in the epididymis. The sperm travels through the vas deferens and picks up three fluids. The seminal vesicles provide energy, the prostate gland provides a fluid to keep the sperm alive, and the cowper's gland provides protection. These fluids make up the semen. The semen travels through the urethra until it is ejaculated from the penis.
What ways can a male keep his reproductive system healthy (5)?
-cleanliness: clean external organs daily to protect from infections
-sexual abstinence: less of a chance of having an STI or HIV
-protection from trauma: wear protective clothing and be careful when lifting heavy objects
-self exams: check for medical issues and prevent serious problems
-medical checkups: ensure reproductive health
What is conception/fertilization?
an egg passing through a sperm cell
What three structures protect and nourish the embryo and later the fetus?
amniotic sac, placenta, and the umbilical cord
What is the function of the amniotic sac?
cushions the embryo from shock and keep its temperature consistent
What is the function of the placenta?
nourishes the embryo with substances from the mother's blood
What is the function of the umbilical cord?
carries nutrients and oxygen from the placenta to the embryo, and carry waste away
What is a trimester?
a division of time in a pregnancy that is three months long
How many trimesters are there in a pregnancy?
What are some of the complications that can occur during pregnancy (4)?
eptopic pregnancy, miscarriage, preeclampsia, and gestational diabetes
What is an eptopic pregnancy?
the blastocyst implants in the fallopian tube or elsewhere in the abdomen instead of uterus
What is a miscarriage?
death of an embryo or fetus, usually in the first 20 weeks and first trimester
What is preeclampsia?
condition characterized by high blood pressure, swelling of the wrists and ankles, and high levels of protein in the urine
What is gestational diabetes?
diabetes that develops in pregnant women, and can cause excess blood sugar in the fetus, resulting in the fetus growing big
How many stages of childbirth?
What is the first stage of childbirth called and what happens?
Stage 1 is labor. Labor is the work preformed by the mother's body to push the fetus out. During this stage, strong contractions of the muscles of the uterus cause the cervix to increase in width, or dilate. This is the longest stage that can go from a few hours to a few days. The amniotic sac also breaks. Crowing usually occurs in late stage 1.
What is the second stage of childbirth called and what happens?
Stage 2 is the delivery of the baby. Contractions of the uterus continues and the baby is pushed out, usually headfirst through the cervix and vagina. Then the umbilical cord is cut, the baby's nose and mouth are suctioned to remove mucus, and the baby is cleaned.
What is the third stage of childbirth called and what happens?
Stage 3 is called delivery of the afterbirth. Contractions of the uterus push out the placenta.
What is postpartum period?
period of adjustment for the parents and their newborn during the six weeks after birth
What are some complications during birth (6)?
still birth where a fetus dies and is expelled from the body after the 20th week of pregnancy, position of the fetus, narrowness of the mother's hips, illness, premature birth, and low birth weight
What is a cesarean section (c-section)?
a surgical method of birth
What are some of the causes to have a c-section?
delivery through the vagina is not possible because of the position of the fetus, narrowness of the mother's hips, illness, or other conditions
What is the difference between fraternal twins and identical twins?
Fraternal twins occur when two ovum are fertilized by two sperm, while identical twins occur when the same ovum us fertilized by the same sperm and then splits.
What is a pathogen?
a germ that causes disease
What are the five pathogens?
fungi, protozoans, bacteria, animals, and viruses
How are pathogens spread (6)?
contact with other people, biting nails or putting hands on face, infected animals, contaminated objects, and contaminated food and water
How does the immune system work?
A germ invades the body and quickly multiplies. The immune system fights back by sending white blood cells to destroy the invaders. The t-cells surround and "eat" some of the invaders, then chemically notify the b-cells which, in turn, produce antibodies which destroy the germs. Germs that survive the attack can cause illness. Antibiotics help to finally destroy all the germs.
What is another name for scabies?
itch mite
What is the pathogen of scabies?
What are the signs and symptoms of scabies?
itching, burrow-type lines, sores and welts
How do you get scabies?
sexual contact, infested clothing bedding and towels
What is the treatment/cure for scabies?
medical lotions
What is another name for vagintitis?
bacteria vaginosis
What is the pathogen of vagintitis?
What are the signs/symptoms of vagintitis?
males: asymptomatic, itching or burning during urination
females: foul smelling vaginal discharge, irritation/itching of genitals
What is the treatment/cure of vagintitis?
Which pathogen can you not cure?
What is the pathogen of Chlamydia?
What is the pathogen of HPV (Genital Warts)?
What is the pathogen of Syphylis?
What is the pathogen of Hepatitis?
What is the pathogen of Herpes?
What is the pathogen of Gonorrhea?
What is the pathogen of Trichomoniasis?
What is the pathogen of AIDS?
What is the pathogen of Candidiasis?
What is the pathogen of pubic lice?
What does HIV stand for?
Human Immunodeficiency Syndrome
What does AIDS stand for?
Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome
What are the four body fluids that can transmit HIV?
blood, semen, vaginal fluids, and breastmilk
How does HIV work in the body?
HIV damages a person's body by destroying specific blood cells, called CD4+T cells, which are crucial to helping the body fight diseases.
What are the stages of HIV?
acute infection, clinical latency, and AIDS
What happens in the acute infection stage of HIV?
large amounts of the virus are being produced and result in flu-like symptoms
What happens in the clinical latency stage of HIV?
HIV produces in very low levels. It can go on for years with no symptoms.
What happens in the AIDS stage of HIV?
the system has been badly damaged and becomes vulnerable to opportunistic infections
What are examples of opportunistic diseases/infections?
tuberculosis, lymphona, toxoplamosis, and candidiasis
What are some ways someone can contract HIV (3)?
unprotected sex, sharing needles, syringes, rinse water, or other equipment used to prepare illicit drugs, or being born to an infected mother
What are some ways someone cannot contract HIV (7)?
air or water, insects, saliva, tears, sweat, casual contact, or closed mouth or "social kissing"
When is someone considered to have AIDS?
the t-cell count falls below 200
Which is the only contraception that protects against pregnancy and STI's 100%?
What contraception other than abstinence helps protect against pregnancy and STI's?
male and female condoms
Why would abstinence be the best choice for teens (4)?
it is 100% for STI and pregnancy protection, no hormonal changes, completely free, and carries no emotional baggage